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A debate on globalisation theory within Nigeria.

A debate on globalisation theory within Nigeria.

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An essay for the 2011 Undergraduate Awards (Ireland) Competition by Jenny Kinsella. Originally submitted for Applied Social Studies at Institute of Technology Carlow, with lecturer Dr. Ruth Casey in the category of Social Studies
An essay for the 2011 Undergraduate Awards (Ireland) Competition by Jenny Kinsella. Originally submitted for Applied Social Studies at Institute of Technology Carlow, with lecturer Dr. Ruth Casey in the category of Social Studies

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Published by: Undergraduate Awards on Aug 31, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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1Globalisation is a complex process to define; there are many facets and dimensionsinvolved. Akinboye (2008) explains that it is a diverse concept and it encompasses political,economic, social and cultural elements. Akninboye (2008:2) defines globalisation simply as;
“a syndrome of processes and activities, which embody a set of ideas and a policyframework organised around the global division of labour and power.”
 It is however a multi-faceted process and Giddens (1990:64) expands the definition of globalisation stating it to also be an intense set of social relations and interdependencebetween countries, which can influence and shape what occurs in distant localities by theevents happening in other countries. This can occur through trade or uniform laws that havebeen applied to global democratization.
Yaqub (2003) believes globalisation has led to the “villagization” of the world,
through the homogeneity of social rules, norms, laws, governance and culture. Considerationmust be given to the heterogeneous mix of local needs, culture and traditions with thehomogeneous rules and laws incurred by globalisation.
“Glocalization” can occur as a result of the uniformity of social norms constructed
through and applied worldwide. These are merged with the heterogeneous needs of local
cultures. “Glocalization” is the combination of global and local cultures combined to create a
hybridized society. Robertson (1992) explains glocalization has the potential for beneficialconsequences for minorities if they appeal to transnational organizations to meet the needs of 
the community that aren’t being met within their own country or at a local level.
 Considering the diversity of such a process it can be seen that globalisation can bedivided into three main areas, in order to deconstruct and understand the process.Globalisation can therefore be seen to create a global culture, a global political order and aglobal economy. Symonides (1998: 28) contends that is a process which fostersinterdependence and interconnection throughout the world through the links created withinthe economic, political and cultural facets of globalisation.Akinboye (2008) suggests that there are two strands of thoughts on globalisation. Thefirst paradigm considers globalisation as interdependence. From this approach globalisation isconsidered to be a framework, which includes an interdependence of global socio-political
and economic assimilation. This has formed “a new and all inclusive social pattern”
according to Akinboye (2008:3).Akinboye (2008) goes on to explain that economic liberalisation is developed throughpolicies of free trade, investment and the flow of capital between interdependent countries.
2Proponents of this paradigm consider the world would benefit greatly from globalparticipation in which countries can utilize the maximum opportunities available to themthrough the interdependency of globalisation (Fukuyama, 1992, Scholte, 2000).Scholte (2000) envisions that globalisation deterritorializes states and presents a formof restructured spatial organisation of social economic transactions and relations. From thisperspective, Scholte (2000) proposes that it is considered that globalisation has made theworld more transparent and as a result has reduced human rights atrocities and eradicatedsocial and economic injustices perpetrated by national governments, to some extent. This is
up for debate with regards to Nigeria’s position.
 The second paradigm sees globalisation as imperialism. This is a political andeconomic perspective. This approach considers globalisation to be a capitalist project, whichaims to transform global politics and economy (Ake, 1995, Akinboye, 2008). Ake (1995: 4)
contends that this form of globalisation is “structured to p
erpetuate the underdevelopment of 
Third World Countries”. This is facilitated by the spread of multi
-national corporationsacross the world and advancements in technology. The main goal of globalisation from animperialist approach is profit maximization Ake, 1995, Madunagu, 1999).This is supported by Nabudere (2000); who states that imperialist globalisationcreates uniform systems around the world and tends to marginalize and fragment somenations. This, according to Nabudere, makes it possible to spread economic risks and lossesacross the globe.This view links to development theories and how globalisation can accentuatedevelopment or perpetuate underdevelopment. Ninsin (2000) describes this as; the exposure
of the economies of the world’s weaker n
ations to the hegemony of the capitalist economiesof developed countries. Imperialism globalisation strengthens developed countries andmarginalises underdeveloped countries to the periphery of the world economy (Akinboye,2008).Nigeria is a good example of such an occurrence; it is a complex example asglobalisation has caused a cleavage within Nigeria, between the North and the South, due tothe effects of imperialism. Southern Nigeria has profited from globalisation due to its oilreserves. It embraced Westernization according to McMahon, Sinclair and Sinclair (2002)and created interdependent economic links with developed countries such as the U.S. and theU.K. This led to greater political leadership in the South also. Northern Nigeria becamemarginalised more so and became the periphery of the periphery, this created a mistrust of the
3South and developed a divide in the country (McMahon et al, 2002, Tehranian and Lum,2006).Abue (2004: 203) explains this divide in a local context stating that two thirds of 
 Nigeria is living below the poverty line, despite Nigeria’s place as the second largest
economy in Africa. Poverty is prevalent in rural areas according to Abue and wealth that isgenerated in rural areas is consumed by the nation state economy. Restrictions are placed onthe capacity of rural dwellers to maximise the potential of agricultural produce. This hascreated dependency and economic insecurity.The third element of globalisation according to Akinboye (2008) which must beconsidered within this context is globalisation as a democratic form of governance. It is
important to consider the political influence within a country’s governance regime. The form
of governance within Nigeria lends itself to globalisation.Akinboye (2008) states that a major force of globalisation in the worldwide generalacceptance of a democratic form of governance. Ayam (2008) explains that Nigeria hasadopted a Federal Republic, modelled on the governance of the U.S. This democraticgovernment elects a president every four years, by popular vote. Each president can serve amaximum of two terms. The House of Representatives and the Senate combine to make theNational Assembly, which run the country.Akinboye (2008:6) posits that democratic governance consists of a majority rule, andthose who exercise power must do so in the interests of the people. The minority must be ableto have their opinions heard and their rights respected and protected. Akninboye posits that inNigeria the minority are not in receipt of adequate opportunity to participate in social,economic and political life.Human Rights Watch (2008, 2009) note the Nigerian government do not investmoney into the country and therefore aids the underdevelopment of rural areas. HumanRights Watch links this to a corrupt government and policing agencies, which carry outhuman rights violations against the citizens of Nigerians.
Falola and Salm (2004) state that this is evident in the lack of Nigeria’s
social caresystems and public facilities, for example a lack of health care and education programs andlocal policing. Sen (1999) contends that this neglect of public facilities in due to theintolerance or inactivity of the nation state towards rural dwellers. Abue (2004:204) proposes
this situation in Nigeria is a direct result of globalisation “spillover”.
 The effects of globalisation on local people in Nigeria must be considered in context.Diaz-Bonilla (2003) explains that globalisation is an interactive process; as in globally there

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