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Gravi Mag Seismic

Gravi Mag Seismic

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Published by Mansoor Ansari

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Published by: Mansoor Ansari on Sep 01, 2012
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02/04/2015

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Course: Geophysical Exploration and Interpretation (PE-309)Topic: Gravity Method, Magnetic Method and Seismic Method
 Submitted to:Sir Muhammad TahirCombined effort by:
Mansoor Ahmed Ansari (PE-024)Muhammad Shahrukh (PE-021)Haris Saleem (PE-030)
 
GRAVITY METHOD:
Gravity is the force of attraction between masses. In geophysical terms it is the force due to theintegrated mass of the whole Earth, which acts on the mechanism of a measuring instrument.Measurements are usually made at the surface of the Earth, in aircraft or on ships. They may alsobe made in mines or on man-made structures. The gravity field in space may be inferred from theorbit of a satellite. The measuring instrument may be a very precise spring balance, a pendulumor a small body falling in a vacuum.If the Earth were a perfect homogeneous sphere the gravity field would only depend on thedistance from the centre of the Earth. In fact the Earth is a slightly irregular oblate ellipsoidwhich means that the gravity field at its surface is stronger at the poles than at the equator. Themass (density) distribution is also uneven, particularly in the rigid crust, which causes gravity tovary from the expected value as the measurement position changes. These variations areexpressed as gravity anomalies, the mapping of which gives us an insight into the structure of theEarth.Gravity methods are still employed very widely in hydrocarbon exploration, many otherapplications have been found, some examples of which are
 
Hydrocarbon exploration
 
Regional geological studies
 
Isostatic compensation determination
 
Exploration for, and mass estimation of, mineral deposits
 
Detection of sub-surface cavities (microgravity)
 
Location of buried rock-valleys
 
Determination of glacier thickness
 
Tidal oscillations
 
Archaeogeophysics (micro-gravity); e.g. location of tombs
 
Shape of the earths (geodesy)
 
Military (especially for missile trajectories)
 
Monitoring volcanoes.
 
A major sedimentary basin can reduce the gravity field by more than 1000 g.u., but many othercommon targets, such as massive ore bodies, produce anomalies of only a few g.u. Caves andartificial cavities such as mine workings usually produce even smaller (and negative) effects,even when very close to the surface. Topographic effects may be much larger. Elevationdifference alone produces a gravity difference of nearly 20 000 g.u. between the summit of Mount Everest and sea-level. For engineering and geological purposes, gravity changes mustoften be measured to an accuracy of 0.1 g.u. (approximately one-
hundred millionth of the Earth‟s
field), and this is the sensitivity of virtually all modern gravity meters. The so-called
„microgravity meters‟ have readout precisions of 0.01 g.u. but not even their manufacturers
claimaccuracies of better than about 0.03 g.u.
Units
The normal value of g at the Earth‟s surface is 980 cm/s2. In honour of Galileo, the c.g.s. unit of 
 acceleration due to gravity (1 cm/s2) is Gal. Modern gravity meters (gravimeters) can measureextremely small variations in acceleration due to gravity, typically 1 part in 109. The sensitivity
 
of modern instruments is about ten parts per million. Such small numbers have resulted in subunits being used such as the:
 
milliGal (1 mGal = 10-3 Gal);
 
microGal (1 μGal
= 10-6 Gal); and
 
1 gravity unit = 1 g.u. =0.1 mGal [10 gu =1 mGal]
 
1 micrometer per second squared =


m

(SI unit)
 
Milligal (mgal) =


cm.s-2 =


ms-2= 10


(the traditional cgs unit)
 
Gravity unit (gu) = 1


(the old American measure = 1 meter scale division)
Gravity Equipment
There are three main classes of gravity measuring instruments:
 
Pendulums - where the period of the pendulum is inversely proportional to g
 
Sensitive spring balances - where the spring extension is proportional to g
 
Falling bodies timed over a fixed distance of fall in a vacuum tubeThe spring balances are relative instruments, which mean that they can only be used to measurethe difference in gravity between two or more points. Pendulums can be used for relative andabsolute measurements by calculating the ratio of periods measured at two points or the exactperiod at a particular point. The falling body class measures the absolute gravity.The drawings in Figure show the result of measurements, indicating the relative surface variationof gravitational acceleration over geologic structures. When the spatial craft passes over a denserbody or crosses to another denser block of rocks the gravitational attraction is increased. Above,it also shows a curve, which describes the gravity behaviour.
FIGURE : Cartoon illustrations showing the relative surface variation of gravitational acceleration overgeologic structures
 

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