Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
3Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
The Relationship Between Lotic Macroinvertebrates and Water Chemistry

The Relationship Between Lotic Macroinvertebrates and Water Chemistry

Ratings: (0)|Views: 11|Likes:
In recent years bioindicators have become an important source of information on the health status rivers. Gradual changes in a river's water chemistry have a direct effect on the populations of macroinvertebrates inhabiting the ecosystem. This report investigates the presence or lack of certain invertebrates at two sites on the Curaheen River, Cork, with respect to water chemistry.
In recent years bioindicators have become an important source of information on the health status rivers. Gradual changes in a river's water chemistry have a direct effect on the populations of macroinvertebrates inhabiting the ecosystem. This report investigates the presence or lack of certain invertebrates at two sites on the Curaheen River, Cork, with respect to water chemistry.

More info:

Published by: Undergraduate Awards on Sep 01, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
See more
See less

10/27/2013

 
The Relationship Between Lotic Macroinvertebrates andWater Chemistry
Introduction:
Gradual changes in environmental factors in river systems exert a direct control on the population dynamics of aquatic organisms, resulting in the formation of distinct biological communities (Hawkes, 1975). Human activities influence a number of theseenvironmental factors and so modify the structure of these aquatic communities(Camargo, 1991). Benthic macroinvertebrates appear to best one of the best biologicalindicators of environmental conditions in running waters (Hawkes, 1979) andconsequently biotic indices using this group of organisms have been developed in order to interpret the results of experiments performed on running waters to assess the leveland affects of pollution. These indices are derived from observation that there is a progressive loss of pollution-tolerant macroinvertebrates species with increasing pollution, assuming that the tolerance to organic pollution is the prime biotic factor affecting the abundance of the macroinvertebrate species (Hellawell, 1986). In general,species composition and species richness are the biological parameters which are mostaffected by pollution (Hellawell, 1986) and so biological indices should be sensitive toalterations in these two parameters (Camargo, 1991).Particulate and dissolved non-living organic matter are important energy inputsin running water systems (Allan, 1995). The amount of organic matter naturally foundin running waters is often supplemented by human activity. Organic enrichment andeutrophication of aquatic systems are induced by urbanisation, farming and industrialactivity and attention has been paid to this kind of pollution from the mid 19
th
centuryonwards (Brabec
et al.
, 2004). Minerals and anions leached from the rocks and soilsaccumulate in rivers raising the nutrient level or trophic status. This eutrophication alsocomes from fertiliser, nutrient rich effluents such as sewage, sedimentation and theremoval of acid layers on the land (Haslam, 1990). The conversion of forestland to pastures and/or residential areas influence stream biota in several ways including theloss of territorial vegetation with a resulting influence on evapotranspiration andinfiltration and it can also interfere with natural flow regimes. Many land-basedendeavours increase sediment input into water systems, which alter the substratumcharacteristics and often reduce macroinvertebrate diversity. In addition, the removal of the riparian vegetation reduces shade and thus can aid in the increase of the water temperature past that of the optimum level for survival of some macroinvertebrates
 
(Sponseller 
et al.
, 2001). The use of fertiliser under certain conditions can adverselyaffect the quality of ground and surface waters. Similarly, the disposal of organicwastes may affect the environment by degrading the quality of the water sources. Withthe wide installation of wastewater treatment plants in the first half of the 20
th
centurymore attention has been paid to the problem of organic pollution in rivers (Porter,1975).
Materials & Methods:
At Site 1 on the Curaheen River 10 kick samples at 30-second intervals were taken.Each of the kick samples were bagged and labelled for analysis in the lab. O
2
,
 
 pH andconductivity were measured in situ using meters. 3 water samples were also taken fromthe site.At Site 2, which was downstream of Site 1 on the Curaheen River, 10 kick samples of 30 second length were taken and again the samples were bagged andlabelled for analysis. O
2
, pH and conductivity were measured in situ using meters and 3water samples were taken.In the lab the macroinvertebrates were extracted, identified and quantified fromthe kick samples.The phosphorus and nitrogen levels were measured for both sites using a Hachmachine. A code for phosphorus was entered into the machine. The wavelength wasthen set to 890nm. A 10ml sample of water was put into a sample cell and was mixedwith a phosphorus pillow. The sample was well shaken and the Hach machine was setto a timer of 2 minutes by pressing “shift, timer”. A control sample of water from sight1 with no reagent was also prepared. The sample cells were wiped down and the blank was put into the machine after the 2 minute timer finished. The machine was “zeroed”against this blank. The sample was then put into the Hach machine and read. Thismethod was repeated to get an average phosphorus level.The nitrogen levels were measured in the same manner with some minoadjustments to the method. A sample of 25mls was used for the analysis and the blank was prepared using deionised water. After the reagent was added, the sample wasshaken for 1 minute and allowed to settle for 5 minutes. The timer was set to 5 minutes.
 
Results:
Higher levels of Hydropsychidae and Tipulidae were found at Site 1 where as higher levels of Gammaridae, Tubificidae and Hydracarina were observed at Site 2. (SeeTable 1)Higher levels of both phosphorus and nitrogen, at 0.25mgl
-1
and1.05mgl
-1
,respectively, were found in Site 1. (See Table 2).The pH in both sites was found to be in the normal range for freshwater of 6.5 to 8. Optimum conductivity levels are between 150 – 500 µScm
-1
. The levelsfound in site 1 and 2 were at much lower levels, at 67 µScm
-1
and 90 µScm
-1
,respectively. The O
2
levels seen in site one were found to be at the optimum level for aquatic life, at 10.6 mgl
-1
and 9mgl
-1
respectively. (See Table 3)
Table 1: Species found at the first and second site examined. 
Site 1No.Site 2No.Hydropsychidae9Hydropsychidae5Heptageniidae15Erpobdellidae1Tipulidae5Tipulidae4Limoniidae2Lumbricidae1Gammaridae1Gammaridae35Tubificidae3Tubificidae6Baetidae15Ephemerellidae3Hydracarina3Hydracarina5Chironomidae40Sericostomatidae4
Table 2: Nitrogen and Phosphorus Levels Measured at Sites 1 and 2
Site 1Site 2
Test (mgl
-1
)123123Phosphorus0.260.290.210.210.190.23 Nitrogen1.20.9------0.5------------
AveragePhosphorus0.250.21AverageNitrogen1.050.5
Table 3: Oxygen, Conductivity and pH levels in Sites 1 and 2:
Site12
 pH7.757.5Conductivity67 µScm
-1
90 µScm
-1
Oxygen10.6 mg l
-1
@ 100%saturation9 mg l
-1
@ 82%saturation

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->