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Oats and Their Food Applications

Oats and Their Food Applications

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This literary report reviews the backround and origin of the oat plant(Avena),growth conditions, physical structures and chemicals structures. It also researches the traditional and modern food applications in terms of the chemical structure as well as health applications, taking into account mainly the Common Oat plant (A. savita).
This literary report reviews the backround and origin of the oat plant(Avena),growth conditions, physical structures and chemicals structures. It also researches the traditional and modern food applications in terms of the chemical structure as well as health applications, taking into account mainly the Common Oat plant (A. savita).

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Published by: Undergraduate Awards on Sep 01, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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12/17/2013

 
Oats and its food applications
 
Oats and Its Food Application Breige Flynn106435793
Table of Contents
1. Introductionpage: 31.1 Backround and Origin of Oatspage: 31.2 Oat Production and Growth in Modern Worldpage: 32. Physical Structure of Oatspage: 53. Chemical Composition3.1 Carbohydratespage: 6SugarsStarchResistant StarchDietary Fibre3.2 Proteinpage: 8Storage ProteinsAmino Acids3.3 Lipidspage: 93.4 Mineralspage: 103.5 Vitaminspage: 103.6 Phytic Acid and Polyphenolspage: 104. Stages of Processing Oatspage: 125 Food Applications of Oats5.1 Traditional Food Usespage: 145.2 Current Food Usespage: 145.3 Health Aspectspage: 15Conclusionpage: 16Bibliographypage: 172
 
Oats and Its Food Application Breige Flynn106435793
1. Introduction
The oat species is part of a genus Avena, within the tribe (or subfamily)
 Aveneae
of the grass family
 Poaceae
or 
Gramineae.
According to Matz (1969) there are 12species or subspecies of 
 Avena,
including the Common Oat (
 A. savita
), the Red Oat(
 A. byzantina
) and the Naked Oat (
 A. nuda
). This report will concentrate mainly onthe Common Oat and its food application, with some references to the Red and Nakedoat species.
1.1 Backround and Origin of Oats
Archaeological evidence suggests that wild oats first appeared, along with rye, as aweed amongst other crops such as barley in early Greece. As a cultivated crop, oatsare only found on a large scale in the most northerly regions of Western Europe(Moore-Coyler, 1995). Historical evidence of this is recorded by the Roman historianPliny, who wrote that ‘Germanic peoples ate oats as porridge’ in the first century A.D.(Matz, 1969). Oats were brought to Britain during the Roman invasion, as a foodsource for the Roman cavalry (Moore-Coyler, 1995). According to Matz (1969) andMoore-Coyler (1995) oats were introduced to North America by early colonists.
1.2 Oat Production and Growth in Modern World
Oats rank sixth place in the world cereal production, after wheat, maize (corn), rice, barley and sorghum. The primary use of the oat grain is for livestock feed, accountingfor roughly 74% of its total use in 1990-91 (Hoffman, 1995). The largest share of thecrop world wide is grown in Russia and the Ukraine, followed by the United States,Germany, Poland, Argentina, Canada and the United Kingdom (Caldwell
et al.,
2000). A significant amount of out grain is produced on smaller, more remote farmsaround the world, including the Himalayan region. These oats never enter thecommercial market place and instead are consumed on-farm (Stevens
et al.,
2004
 )
Oats grow in cool, moist climates and are sensitive to hot and dry weather. Oat canadapt too many different soil types and productivity increases on acidic soils than anyother small grains (Hoffman, 1995). A small percentage of seeds can germinate attemperatures near to freezing point, however the vast majority of oat varieties do notwithstand subzero temperatures for long periods of time in the absence of snow cover 3

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