Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Effect of process conditions on material thinning reversion tendency in vacuum forming

Effect of process conditions on material thinning reversion tendency in vacuum forming

Ratings: (0)|Views: 62 |Likes:
To observe the thickness distribution in vacuum forming and the tendency of forming during thermally induced reversion.
To produce PS product by using the simply positive forming with minimal variation in the thickness distribution.
To observe the thickness distribution in vacuum forming and the tendency of forming during thermally induced reversion.
To produce PS product by using the simply positive forming with minimal variation in the thickness distribution.

More info:

Published by: Undergraduate Awards on Sep 01, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
See more
See less

10/27/2013

 
Effect of process conditions on material thinning reversiontendency in vacuum forming
Yuanyuan You ID: 0700061Date: 20/02/2009Lecturer: Professor C. Birkinshaw
Introduction
To observe the thickness distribution in vacuum forming and the tendency of formingduring thermally induced reversion.To produce PS product by using the simply positive forming with minimal variationin the thickness distribution.
Experimental Procedure
Forming conditions:
In this experiment, RIDAT 3624 vacuum former was used.
Forming card size: 890 mm * 584 mm. Drape depth: 300 mm. Heater type:Ceramic Radiant heater. Electrical consumption: 12.4 Kw. Number of heater zones: 14.
Material properties:
 
P91-high impact high glass polystyrene (Thermoplastic).
Advantage: tougher than polystyrene, cheap and easily processed.
Disadvantage: reduced electrical properties and transparency. Increased moistureabsorption.
Density: 1.08g/cm
3
, Tensile Strength: 42MPa, Elongation at Break: 2.5% ,Glass transition temperature: 95°C, Melting Temp. Range: 210-270°C.
Former:
Formers can be any material that does not melt, deform, or outgas toxic fumes at thethermoplastic forming temperature. In this lab, wood former is used. It is cheap, easywork with and tougher than plaster but dimensional stability is poor.
Results
Table 1: Comparison of process temperature on PS thinning and reversion tendency in vacuum forming.
Sheet Thickness(mm)
Temperature90 (55sec.)
105 (65sec.)
119 (75sec.)
ZoneBeforereversionAfter reversionBeforereversionAfter reversionBeforereversionAfter reversionA0.951.000.960.960.930.93B0.870.920.920.960.890.93C0.780.840.840.880.830.87D0.700.720.680.690.710.77E0.660.690.730.730.670.67Original sheet thickness: 1 mm.
Fig 1: Comparison of process temperature on PS thinning and reversion tendency in vacuum forming
 
ABCDE
90
Before reversion90
After reversion105
Before reversion105
After reversion119
Before reversion119
After reversion
00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.91
 Thi ckness(
Zon
Processtemperature (
)
90
Before reversio90
After reversion105
Before reversi105
After reversio119
Before reversi119
After reversio
Fig 2: Final shape of product with indicated 5 distribution zones.
 
From Fig 2
, it is easy to see that zone A and B are plate, zone E and D are edge, andzone C is the slope. Also, the grid is distorted most in the edge part E and D, lessdistortion in the slope zone C and almost keeps square in plate zone A and B.There is also a problem on forming product: Plastic not conforming to the shape of the former in corner. Potential Causes: The plastic was too stiff (too little sagging, pulled out too quickly); the vacuum was not strong enough (less than 25 inHg); the buck is too tall.
From Table 1 and Fig 2:
Zone comparison:
Zone A and B: the most thickness zone in the all forming temperature range.
Zone C: slope thickness in the middle range between edge and plate zone
Zone D and E: the thinnest part as they are in edge zone.Forming temperature comparison:
90:
it is just less than Tg, so the secondary bond does not break yet and chainstill entanglement. The thickness goes down sharply from zone A to E, althoughreversion helps thickness goes back to original, but the thickness distribution isstill too variable. So 90 forming temperature is not suitable for this product.
105:
it is just above the Tg, so the secondary bonds break, chain entanglementgoes down and easy to stretch. The thickness distribution keeps minimal variationin three temperature range. So the product quality is the best on 105 forming
 temperature.
119:
it is much higher than the Tg, so the secondary bonds break, chainentanglement goes down and leaves high levels of molecular orientation in theforming. The thickness goes down sharply from zone A to E again, the thicknessdistribution is variable. So 119 forming temperature is not suitable for this
  product.
Discussion:
When the PS sheet plasticis
heated
to a forming temperature which just abovethe glass transition temperature, the secondary bonds break and chainentanglement in thermoplastic goes down. Also, as the forming temperature goesup the thermal energy, viscosity, thickness decrease somewhat. As forming timeincrease, the thermal energy goes up.
On
cooling
and
hardening
, a molding will tend to shrink on to the positivemould. Different zone have differing shrinkage rates depending on the shape andthickness.
Crystalline and semi crystalline materials tend to shrink more than amorphousnormally due to the more efficient molecular packing within crystal. In additionto shrinkage from thermal contraction differential shrinkage can also occur  because of relaxation of molecular orientation.
Before
reversion
, the model is locked during rapid cooling. After reversion, theresidual stress, tension stress of molecules relaxes, so the polymer tends to back to original shape. However, different zone has different molecular orientation and

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->