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All about Chess and Darts

All about Chess and Darts

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Published by: Eliza Mendoza Montemayor on Sep 01, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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is a two-player board gameplayed on achessboard,a square-checkered board with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid. It is one of the world's most popular games, played by millions of people worldwide at home, inclubs,online, bycorrespondence,and intournaments.  Each player begins the game with sixteenpieces:oneking,onequeen,tworooks,two knights,twobishops,and eightpawns,each of these types of piecesmovingdifferently. Pieces are used to attack and capture the opponent's pieces. The object of the game istocheckmatethe opponent's king by placing it under threat of capture ("check") which cannot be avoided. In addition to checkmate, the game can be won by the voluntaryresignation of one's opponent, which may occur when too muchmaterialis lost, or if checkmate appears unavoidable. A game may result in adrawin several ways, andneither player wins. The course of the game is divided in three phases. The beginningof the game is called theopening(with thedevelopmentof pieces). The opening yields to the phase called themiddlegame.The last phase is theendgame,generally characterized by the disappearance of queens.The first officialWorld Chess Champion,Wilhelm Steinitz,claimed his title in 1886; the current World Champion isViswanathan Anand.In addition to theWorld Championship,  there are theWomen's World Championship,theJunior World Championship,theWorld Senior Championship,theCorrespondence Chess World Championship,theWorld Computer Chess Championship,andBlitz and Rapid World Championships.TheChess Olympiadis a popular competition among teams from different nations. Online chesshas opened amateur and professional competition to a wide and varied group of players. Chess is arecognized sportof theInternational Olympic Committee,and international chess competition is sanctioned by theFIDE (Fédération Internationaledes Échecs or World Chess Federation).There are also manychess variantsthat have different rules, different pieces, and different boards.Commencing in the second half of the 20th century, computers have been programmedto play chess with increasing success to the point where home computers can playchess at a very high level. In the past two decades computer analysis has contributedsignificantly to chess theory as understood by human players, particularly in theendgame. The computer programDeep Bluewas the first machine player to overcomea reigning World Chess Champion when itdefeatedGarry Kasparovin 1997. The
history of chess
spans some 1500 years. The earliest predecessors of the gameoriginated inIndia,before the 6th century AD. From India, the game spread toPersia.  When the Arabs conquered Persia, chess was taken up by the Muslim world andsubsequently spread to SouthernEurope.In Europe, chess evolved into roughly itscurrent form in the 15th century. In the second half of the 19th century, modernchesstournamentplay began, and the firstworld Chess Championshipwas held in 1886. The 20th century saw great leaps forward inchess theoryand the establishment of theWorld Chess Federation(FIDE). Developments in the 21st century include use of 
computersfor analysis, which originated in the 1970s with the first programmed chessgames on the market. Online gaming appeared in the mid 1990's.The precursors of chess originated inIndiaduring theGupta Empire,
 where itsearly form in the 6th century was known as 
,which translates as "four divisions (of the military)":infantry,cavalry,elephantry,andchariotry,represented by the pieces that would evolve into the modern pawn, knight, bishop, and rook,respectively.
 Chess was introduced to Persia from India and became a part of the princely or courtlyeducation of Persiannobility.
 InSassanid Persiaaround 600 the name became
, which subsequently evolved to 
,and the rules were developed further.
Players started calling "Shāh!" (
Persian for "King!") when attacking the opponent's king,
and "Shāh Māt!" (Persian for "the king is helpless" –
seecheckmate)when the king wasattacked and could not escape from attack. These exclamations persisted in chess as ittraveled to other lands.The game was taken up by theMuslim worldafter theIslamic conquest of Persia,with the pieces largely keeping their Persian names. TheMoorsof North Africarendered Persian "shatranj" as
, which gave rise to theSpanish
; inPortugueseit became
, and inGreek
, but in the rest of Europe it was replaced by versions of the Persian
("king"). Thus, the game cameto be called
ludus scacchorum 
inRomanian;there are two theories about why this change happened:1. From the exclamation "check" or "checkmate" as it was pronounced in variouslanguages.2. From the first chessmen known of in Western Europe (exceptIberiaand Greece)being ornamental chess kings brought in as curios by Muslim traders.The Mongols call the game
, and in Ethiopia it is called
, both evidentlyderived from
.Chess spread directly from theMiddle Eastto Russia, where chess became known as
шахматы (
, treated as a plural).The game reached Western Europe and Russia by at least three routes, the earliestbeing in the 9th century. By the year 1000 it had spread throughout Europe.
 Introduced into theIberian Peninsulaby theMoorsin the 10th century, it was described in a famous 13th century manuscript covering shatranj,backgammonanddicenamed the 
Chess spread throughout the world and many variants of the game soon began takingshape.
Buddhistpilgrims,Silk Roadtraders and others carried it to theFar Eastwhere it was transformed and assimilated into a game often played on the intersection of thelines of the board rather than within the squares.
 Chaturanga reachedEuropethrough Persia, theByzantine empireand the expandingArabian empire.
Muslimscarried chess toNorth Africa,Sicily,andIberiaby the 10th century.
 The game was developed extensively in Europe, and by the late 15th century, it hadsurvived a series of prohibitions andChristian Churchsanctions to almost take theshape of the modern game.
Modern historysaw reliable reference works,
 competitive chess tournaments
 and exciting new variants which added to the game'spopularity,
 further bolstered by reliable timing mechanisms (first introduced in 1861),effective rules
 and charismatic players.
Game of the Generals 
, also called
as it is most fondly called, or simply
The Generals 
, is aneducationalwargameinvented in the Philippines bySofronio H. Pasola, Jr.in1970.It can be played within twenty to thirty minutes. It is designed for two players, each controlling an army, and a neutral arbiter or anadjutant.It needs the useof logic.The game simulates armies at war trying to outflank and outmaneuver eachother. As in actual warfare, the game allows only one side's plan to succeed. Certainstrategies and tactics, however, allow both sides the chance of securing a better idea of the other's plan as the game progresses. Players can also speak with others duringmatches, hoping to make a false impression on where the flag is.This game was invented by Sofronio H. Pasola, Jr. with the inspiration of Ronnie Pasola(his son). The Pasolas first tried the Game of the Generals on a chessboard. Even then,the pieces had no particular arrangement. There were no spies in the experimentalgame; but after Ronnie Pasola remembered theJames Bondmovies and Mata Hari, headded the spies. 
 Making the pieces hidden was the idea of the Pasolas after remembering card games. The Game of the Generals' public introduction was onFebruary 28, 1973. 
is a form of throwinggamein whichdartsare thrown at a circular target (dartboard) fixed to a wall.
 Though various boards and rules have been used in thepast, the term "darts" usually now refers to a standardised game involving a specificboard design and set of rules. As well as being a professional competitive sport, darts isa traditionalpub game,commonly played in theUnited Kingdom,across the Commonwealth,theNetherlands,Belgium,Republic of Ireland,theScandinavian countries, theUnited States,Canadaand elsewhere.

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