Chapter 15: Capital Structure:

Basic Concepts

15.1a.Since Alpha Corporation is an all-equity firm, its value is equal to the market value of its outstandingshares. Alpha has 5,000 shares of common stock outstanding, worth $20 per share.

Therefore, the value of Alpha Corporation is $100,000 (= 5,000 shares * $20 per share).

b.Modigliani-Miller Proposition I states that in the absence of taxes, the value of a levered firm equalsthe value of an otherwise identical unlevered firm. Since Beta Corporation is identical to AlphaCorporation in every way except its capital structure and neither firm pays taxes, the value of the twofirms should be equal.Modigliani-Miller Proposition I (No Taxes):V

L

=V

U

Alpha Corporation, an unlevered firm, is worth $100,000 (V

U

).

Therefore, the value of Beta Corporation (V

L

) is $100,000.

c.The value of a levered firm equals the market value of its debt plus the market value of its equity.V

L

= B + SThe value of Beta Corporation is $100,000 (V

L

), and the market value of the firm’s debt is $25,000(B).The value of Beta’s equity is:S= V

L

– B= $100,000 - $25,000=

$75,000Therefore, the market value of Beta Corporation’s equity (S) is $75,000.

d.Since the market value of Alpha Corporation’s equity is $100,000, it will cost

$20,000

(= 0.20 *$100,000) to purchase 20% of the firm’s equity.Since the market value of Beta Corporation’s equity is $75,000, it will cost

$15,000

(= 0.20 *$75,000) to purchase 20% of the firm’s equity.e.Since Alpha Corporation expects to earn $350,000 this year and owes no interest payments, thedollar return to an investor who owns 20% of the firm’s equity is expected to be

$70,000

(= 0.20 *$350,000) over the next year.While Beta Corporation also expects to earn $350,000 before interest this year, it must pay 12%interest on its debt. Since the market value of Beta’s debt at the beginning of the year is $25,000,Beta must pay $3,000 (= 0.12 * $25,000) in interest at the end of the year. Therefore, the amount of the firm’s earnings available to equity holders is $347,000 (= $350,000 - $3,000). The dollar returnto an investor who owns 20% of the firm’s equity is

$69,400

(= 0.20 * $347,000).

f.

The initial cost of purchasing 20% of Alpha Corporation’s equity is $20,000, but the cost to aninvestor of purchasing 20% of Beta Corporation’s equity is only $15,000 (see part

d

).In order to purchase $20,000 worth of Alpha’s equity using only $15,000 of his own money, theinvestor must borrow $5,000 to cover the difference. The investor must pay 12% interest on his borrowings at the end of the year.B-1

Since the investor now owns 20% of Alpha’s equity, the dollar return on his equity investment at theend of the year is $70,000 ( = 0.20 * $350,000). However, since he borrowed $5,000 at 12% per annum, he must pay $600 (= 0.12 * $5,000) at the end of the year.Therefore, the cash flow to the investor at the end of the year is $69,400 (= $70,000 - $600). Notice that this amount exactly matches the dollar return to an investor who purchases 20% of Beta’s equity.Strategy Summary:1.Borrow $5,000 at 12%.2.Purchase 20% of Alpha’s stock for a net cost of $15,000 (= $20,000 - $5,000 borrowed).g.The equity of Beta Corporation is riskier. Beta must pay off its debt holders before its equity holdersreceive any of the firm’s earnings. If the firm does not do particularly well, all of the firm’s earningsmay be needed to repay its debt holders, and equity holders will receive nothing.15.2a.A firm’s debt-equity ratio is the market value of the firm’s debt divided by the market value of afirm’s equity.The market value of Acetate’s debt $10 million, and the market value of Acetate’s equity is $20million.Debt-Equity Ratio = Market Value of Debt / Market Value of Equity= $10 million / $20 million=

½Therefore, Acetate’s Debt-Equity Ratio is ½.

b.

In the absence of taxes, a firm’s weighted average cost of capital (r

wacc

) is equal to:r

wacc

= {B / (B+S)} r

B

+ {S / (B+S)}r

S

where B = the market value of the firm’s debtS= the market value of the firm’s equityr

B

= the pre-tax cost of a firm’s debtr

S

= the cost of a firm’s equity.In this problem:B= $10,000,000S= $20,000,000r

B

= 14%The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) must be used to calculate the cost of Acetate’s equity (r

S

)According to the CAPM:r

S

= r

f

+

β

S

{E(r

m

) – r

f

}wherer

f

= the risk-free rate of interestE(r

m

) = the expected rate of return on the market portfolio

β

S

= the beta of a firm’s equityIn this problem:r

f

= 8%E(r

m

) = 18%

β

S

= 0.9B-2

Therefore, the cost of Acetate’s equity is:r

S

= r

f

+

β

S

{E(r

m

) – r

f

}= 0.08 + 0.9( 0.18 – 0.08)=

0.17The cost of Acetate’s equity (r

S

) is 17%.

Acetate’s weighted average cost of capital equals:r

wacc

= {B / (B+S)} r

B

+ {S / (B+S)}r

S

= ($10 million / $30 million)(0.14) + ($20 million / $30 million)(0.17)= (1/3)(0.14) + (2/3)(0.17)=

0.16Therefore, Acetate’s weighted average cost of capital is 16%.

c.According to Modigliani-Miller Proposition II (No Taxes):r

S

= r

0

+ (B/S)(r

0

– r

B

)where r

0

= the cost of capital for an all-equity firmr

S

= the cost of equity for a levered firmr

B

= the pre-tax cost of debtIn this problem:r

S

= 0.17r

B

= 0.14B = $10,000,000S = $20,000,000Thus:0.17 = r

0

+ (1/2)(r

0

– 0.14)Solving for r

0:

r

0

= 0.16Therefore, the cost of capital for an otherwise identical all-equity firm is 16%.

This is consistent with Modigliani-Miller’s proposition that, in the absence of taxes, the cost of capital for an all-equity firm is equal to the weighted average cost of capital of an otherwise identicallevered firm.15.3Since Unlevered is an all-equity firm, its value is equal to the market value of its outstandingshares. Unlevered has 10 million shares of common stock outstanding, worth $80 per share.

Therefore, the value of Unlevered is $800 million (= 10 million shares * $80 per share).

Modigliani-Miller Proposition I states that, in the absence of taxes, the value of a levered firm equalsthe value of an otherwise identical unlevered firm. Since Levered is identical to Unlevered in everyway except its capital structure and neither firm pays taxes, the value of the two firms should beequal.Modigliani-Miller Proposition I (No Taxes):V

L

=V

U

Therefore, the market value of Levered, Inc.,

should be

$800 million also.Since Levered has 4.5 million outstanding shares, worth $100 per share, the market value of Levered’s equity is $450 million. The market value of Levered’s debt is $275 million.B-3