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Sceince Reviewer

Sceince Reviewer

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Published by Nacho Villanueva

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Published by: Nacho Villanueva on Sep 01, 2012
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09/01/2012

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1
st 
Term ScienceExam ReviewerCells
 I.
 
Cell Theorya.
 
Cells are the basic unit of lifeb.
 
Cells come from preexisting cellsc.
 
All living things are composed of cellsII.
 
Scientists who contributed to the study of the cella.
 
Robert Hookei.
 
Discovered and named the cell in 1665b.
 
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek i.
 
Made a better version of the microscopec.
 
Robert Browni.
 
Discovered the nucleus of the celld.
 
Theodor Schwanni.
 
Discovered that all animals have cells in 1838e.
 
Mathias Jacob Schleideni.
 
Discovered that all plants have cells in 1839f.
 
Rudolf Virchowi.
 
Discovered that all cells come from preexisting cellsIII.
 
Cell Classificationa.
 
Presence/Absence of nucleusi.
 
Eukaryotes1.
 
Have nucleus2.
 
Examples: Animal and Plant cells, Protists, and Fungiii.
 
Prokaryotes1.
 
Don’t have a nucleus
 2.
 
Examples: Bacteriab.
 
Number of cellsi.
 
Unicellular1.
 
Examples: Prokaryotes, Some protistsii.
 
Multicellular1.
 
Examples: Animals, Plants, some Protists and FungiIV.
 
Prokaryotesa.
 
Small Cells (<5µm)b.
 
Always unicellularc.
 
No neucleus or any membrane-bound organellesd.
 
Circular DNA, without Proteinse.
 
Small Ribosomesf.
 
Has Cytoskeletong.
 
Reproduction is always asexualh.
 
Cell division is called Binary FissionV.
 
Eukaryotesa.
 
Larger Cells (>10µm)b.
 
Often Multicellularc.
 
Always have nucleus and other membrane-bound organellesd.
 
Linear DNA
 
e.
 
Has Cytoskeletonf.
 
Reproduction is either asexual or sexualg.
 
Cell division is by Meiosis or Mitosish.
 
Small RibosomesVI.
 
Basic Cell structurea.
 
Plasma/Cell Membranei.
 
A thin flexible barrier around the cell made of phospholipids and proteinsii.
 
Separates the contents of the cell from the outsideenvironment iii.
 
Supports and protects the cellb.
 
Nucleusi.
 
Plural: Nucleiii.
 
Large structure containing the cell’s genetic material (DNA)
 iii.
 
Controls Cells activitiesc.
 
Cytoplasmi.
 
Fills the cell’s interior
 ii.
 
Contains organellesVII.
 
Eukaryotic Cell Structurea.
 
Cell walli.
 
Found in plants, algae and fungiii.
 
Lies outside the cell membraneiii.
 
Allows H2O, O2, CO2 etc. thoughb.
 
Nucleusi.
 
Small dense region. Here the ribosome assembly beginsii.
 
Sub parts of the Nucleus1.
 
Chromatina.
 
Granular materials within the nucleusb.
 
Consists of DNA bound to a proteinc.
 
Condenses to form Chromosomes2.
 
Chromosomesa.
 
Distinct thread like structure containing theDNA passed from one generation to the next 3.
 
Nuclear Envelopea.
 
A double envelope covers the nucleusb.
 
It’s dotted with thousands of nuclear pores
 4.
 
Nucleolusa.
 
The place where Ribosomes are madeb.
 
Composed of protein and nucleotides5.
 
Nucleoplasma.
 
Basically the Cytoplasm of the nucleusc.
 
Cell Membranei.
 
Fluid Mosaic Model1.
 
Because of thedifferent components shown in this
model, and because it’s a liquid it is called
the Fluid Mosaic. Model.ii.
 
Components of theCell membrane
 
1.
 
Proteinsa.
 
Intrinsici.
 
Inside the cellb.
 
Extrinsici.
 
Outside or inside the cell.2.
 
Lipidsa.
 
Phospholipidsi.
 
Make up the bilayerb.
 
Cholesteroli.
 
Prevents the membrane fromsolidifying at low temperatures.iii.
 
Cytoskeleton1.
 
Network of Protein fibers supporting
the cell’s shape
and anchoring organellesa.
 
Actin Filamentsi.
 
Helps the cell’s movement 
 b.
 
Microtubulesi.
 
Hollow tubesii.
 
Facilitates cell’s movement 
 iii.
 
Centrioles1.
 
Help assemble the animal’s
microtubulesc.
 
Intermediate Filamentsi.
 
Stable
 
Don’t break down
 ii.
 
Act similar to the support columns of abuildingVIII.
 
Specialized structures in Prokaryotesa.
 
Pilii.
 
Protein Filamentsii.
 
Help cling to surfacesiii.
 
Part of Cytoskeletonb.
 
Plasmidi.
 
Circular DNA that self replicatesc.
 
Peptidoglycani.
 
Attached to bacterial cell wall(Sugars attached with peptide bonds)IX.
 
Organellesa.
 
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)i.
 
Rough ER1.
 
Has Ribosomes2.
 
Site of Protein synthesisii.
 
Smooth ER1.
 
Has enzymes that produce lipids and carbohydrates2.
 
Has no Ribosomesiii.
 
Largest internal membraneiv.
 
Composed of Phospholipidsv.
 
Serves as a system of channels from the nucleusvi.
 
Functions in storage and secretionsvii.
 
Sends goods through vesicles

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