expressly deviates from that framework ,
and further, whether or not the result of thatdeviation substantiates a
of form.In the most recent addition to sonata theory literature,
Elements of SonataTheory: Norms, Types and Deformations in the Late-Eighteenth-Century Sonata
,James Hepokoski and Warren Darcy describe five types of sonata form. The typeunder which Liszt’s sonata may seemingly be posited, the “normative sonata” (type3), does not include the possibility of a ‘double function’
sonata form, in which first movement form (exposition, recapitulation etc) and sonatamovements (first movement, finale etc) occur concurrently. This is the form in whichall but one of the present analysts agree the Sonata in B Minor was composed.According to Hepokoski and Darcy’s theory then, the sonata would be consideredwhat they have termed a “deformation”.Hepokoski, in his introduction to
Sibelius: Symphony No. 5
states: “To perceive many modern works appropriately we should not try to take their measurewith the obsolete ‘sonata’ gauge […] but rather to understand that they invokefamiliar, ‘post-sonata’ generic subtypes that have undergone, in various conbinations,the effects of differing deformational procedures.”
Although the Sonata in B Minor is not modern in a historical sense, many of the subtypes referred to by Hepokoskiwere being experimented with at the time of its composition, indeed, it may itself beone. The notion of a double function or two dimensional form as a deformation isconfirmed by Hepokoski by being placed in the list of deformation families under thecategory of “multimovement forms in a single movement”
. Before leaving this point, it may be observed that although Hepokoski acknowledges that it would beanachronistic to gauge a nineteenth or twentieth century sonata form using the
sonata type as an analytical tool, it could be suggested that it may alsoanachronistic to refer to what might be considered ‘new’ sonata types emergent in the
Vande Moortele confirms Liszt as “a progressive composer from the second half of the nineteenthcentury who had the ambition of modernizing sonata form” in
Two Dimensional Sonata Form
, p. 67.
The term as suggested by Newman (1972), in which each section (exposition, development etc)functions simultaneously as both an element of ‘first movement’ form, and concurrently as an elementof a multimovement work.
The term as suggested by Steven Vande Moortele in his doctoral dissertation
Two Dimensional Sonata Form in Germany and Austria Between 1850 and 1950: Theoretical, Analytical and Critical Perspectives
(Catholic University Leuven 2006), pp. 13-44, in which each section may have a doublefunction or may function
as an element of the ‘first movement’ form
an element of themultimovement work.
Sibelius: Symphony No. 5
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1993), p. 5.
Ibid., p. 7.