I have chosen to discuss the physiological and psychological aspects of maternal addiction toheroin, the effects on the foetus and the possible problems related to the attachment of therelationship between mother and child after birth. I will discuss this issue using thebiopsychosocial model, and how the use of it affects a patient experience in the hospitalsetting (Borrell-Carrio et al, 2004).
Drug addiction can be described as ‘a number of
symptoms or criteria that reflect a loss of control over drug intake and narrowing of the
number of different behavioural responses towards drug seeking’ (Koob at al, 1997).
George Engel established the model, where he questioned the use of the biomedical model,which separated body and mind (Borrell-Carrio et al, 2004). Weston (2005) analyzes themodel, where he suggests dividing the model where the doctor focuses on the biologicalfactors and other healthcare workers focus on the social and psychological issues. He alsoraises the point of when psychosocia
l care is carried out in a patient’s assessment, the patient
themselves may become disheartened that we may focus too much on the social andpsychological aspect, when they are concerned about their treatment and establishing theirillness (Weston, 2005). In the clinical issue I have chosen psychosocial care is so important,as drug abuse, the well being of a child and social issues are involved.Heroin addiction is a difficult issue for a nurse to plan the care of a patient who is pregnant.Heroin is a very powerful opiate, where it gives a sense of euphoria and high mood elevation(Addiction Science, 2011). The main system of focus is the mesolimbic reward system,which is a branch of the dopamine system. Dopamine is known to control mood levels, and ina normal brain system there is a slow release of dopamine, due to the work of actionpotentials which then leads to an ordinary level of mood and motivation (Addiction Science,2011). Food and sex in a normal brain system activate the reward system leading to a feelingof pleasure and satisfaction. In a heroin induced brain system these every day pleasures nolonger give the same effect with the drug taking over the role of the mesolimbic rewardsystem (Hyman et al, 2001). Opiate use leads to molecular changes in the brain making it