Due to the increased incidence of colorectal cancer and other bowel diseases in recent timesthe need for stoma formation surgery has become ever more important (Thorpe et al, 2009).Although there has been many advancements in medicine, ostomy formation surgery remainsone of the major treatments for colorectal cancers (Kit Man Wu et al, 2007). To date, inIreland, there has been a lack of both quantitative and qualitative research in relation toostomies. Most of the international research has focused on ostomy formation and its link toaltered body image (McKenzie et al, 2006) whereas little research has focused exactly on theexperiences of those living with an ostomy.
The research question generated by this proposed study is “What are the lived
eriences of people who have undergone irreversible ileostomy or colostomy formation? ”.
A literature review is a comprehensive review of the literature, to identify and critiquewhat is already known about the research topic, to determine what gaps remain to be studiedand to clarify the research question (Doordan, 1998). This literature review intends toexplore recent research in relation to ostomies.
An ostomy has been defined as theformation of an ileostomy or a colostomy to rediret contents from the bowel onto the front of the abdomen and the attachment of a bag exteriorly to gather the contents (Thorpe et al,2009). An ileostomy affects the small intestine and a colostomy affects the large intestine(Welser et al, 2009). A stoma may be created to eliminate a disease or to improve the qualityof life for a person (Burch, 2005). An ostomy may be permanent or temporary and this canaffect how well an individual accepts the ostomy. The most common reasons for ostomyformation include colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohns disease andUlcerative Colitis), diverticular disease and faecal incontinence (Brown and Randle, 2005).The latest published European estimates of colorectal cancers suggest that 432,414 newincidents occur annually, while the mortality rate totalled 212,219 in 2008 (IARCGLOBOCAN, 2008). Having this procedure carried out changes how the bowel works, afunction rarely appreciated when working correctly (Thorpe et al, 2009).
Throughout theimmediate period after the procedure, individuals need to begin the acceptance process inorder to regain their independence, manage their condition and interact within society again
In researching the literature, electronic databases available in the University of Limerick were used. Thesedatabases included Cinahl, Medline, Science Direct, PsycINFO and Nursing and Allied Health. A further searchwas conducted on the INO databases and these included Internurse.com and Nursing@Ovid. Keywords such as
‘ostomy’, ‘ileostomy’, ‘colostomy’, ‘bowel
surgery’ were entered into the search engine first. Terms such as‘acceptance’, ‘psychological’, ‘coping’
‘sexuality’, ‘lived experiences’ and ‘altered body image’ were thenadded using the ‘AND’ command to search for data relating to both search term
s. A manual search of booksand journals was also conducted in search of relevant literature.