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Lab Report #15 D, DCP & CE Verifying Snell's Law Ngan Din

# Lab Report #15 D, DCP & CE Verifying Snell's Law Ngan Din

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02/21/2013

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Student’s Name
: IMRAN BIN ARIFFIN
Partner’s Name
: Muhammad Fakhruddin Bin GhazaliClass : E11C
Teacher’s Name
: Pn. Adilah bt. Che HassanDate : 31.01.2012TITLE :
Verifying Snell’s Law
Aim :
To verify Snell’s Law by finding
the refractive index
.
Problem Defining
:
Snell’s law, which states that the refractive index
of a medium is equal to the


ratio where
,
is respectively angle of incident and angle of refraction, can be verified froma constant gradient of the graph

against

where
is the reciprocal of the gradient. Butsince the angle of refraction has its limit i.e. when total internal reflection occurs, the graph is constantonly for
critical angle
. Therefore we may only consider the gradient for
.
Research Question:
To verify
Snell’s Law by showing that the ratio of the sin value of incident angle to the sine of
refracted angle is a constant and is equal to the refractive index of the glass, by measuring therespective angle made by the bent light ray to the normal at the point of bending when a light ray isprojected trough a glass block at different angle.
Variables:Independent Variable:
the incident angles
of the light ray to the normal of glass block.
Dependent Variable:
the refractive angle
of the light ray to the normal of glass block.
Constant Variable:
the refractive index of the glass i.e. same glass block, position of glass block, thecolour of light ray (constant degree of refraction), length r of radial lines.
Materials and Apparatuses:
a rectangular glass block, a small protractor, a big protractor, a wide white paper, light rayprojector, sharp mechanical pencil.

Methods for Controlling Variables:
The lights are turned off and curtains are closed to maximize the relative intensity of the lightray (to make easy to observe and to mark the angles). The glass block used is the same throughout theexperiment for constant refractive index n. The experiment is made on wide white paper to maximizeclarity for observation. A very sharp mechanical pencil is used to mark the angles, in order to produceaccurate measurement. Lines r are made to help in determining the position from which light ray is tobe projected for respective
. More values of
are anticipated to be used near the critical angle sincethe markings might get narrower causing it hard to measure the angle
. As to maintain the positionof glass block, lines parametering the glass block are drawn before the experiment to allow the x and zposition of the glass block is constant hence a constant normal line can be used.
Methods for Collecting Variables and the Precaution Measures:
The values of
is produced by first drawing markings using protractor and then radial linesfrom the center O through the respective markings are made to help with light ray projection. Duringthe projection of the light ray, we make sure that the ray is always at the center of and parallel to therespective radial line so that the angle made by ray to the normal is the same as that by the radial line.After the light is on, we make radial lines for each of the markings so that we can measure
fromrespective radial lines using a protractor. As precaution measures in collecting the data,

Diagram:Procedure:
A wide white paper is let to spread flat on a wide table. A dot O as the point of refraction is drawn onthe centre of the paper and then a long straight line named the boundary line is drawn through it suchthat it is almost perpendicular to one side of the paper. From referenced at the line, ticks showingangles
, whose measurement start from the line, from 0
to 90
of interval 10
(except for angle 82
)are made using a big protractor and a sharp mechanical pencil Then, straight lines radiating from Othrough the ticks are drawn. Another long straight line is drawn perpendicular to the first one and isconsidered the normal line.A glass block is put on the paper such that point O touches one of its sides and that side fully touchesthe boundary line(as in the diagram).Following the methods for controlling variables and for collecting data stated up above, the procedurecontinues. At angle of incident,
, of 10.00
light ray is projected and the produced angle of refraction,
, is measured and the value is recorded. The experiment is repeated with
of

.

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