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Lecture 37

Lecture 37

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Published by Jaf Shah

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Published by: Jaf Shah on Sep 02, 2012
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09/15/2013

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Module 11Ecological Degradation and Environmental Pollution
Lecture 37: Population and Sustainable DevelopmentSlide 1
INTRODUCTIONPopulation has very close connection with environment. The relationship between populationand environment is, however, reciprocal: both population and environment affect each other. Yetit was in the second half of the twentieth century that the relationship between population andenvironment got serious attention of economists, sociologists and demographers who beganexploring various linkages between population and environment. Earlier, population was linkedmore with economic development than with environment. In sociology the works onenvironment follow mostly one of the two lines of thought:
 
Sociology of environment; and
 
Environmental sociologySociologists of environment examine how social structure affects the environment, i.e.,resource use, resource depletion, environmental pollution, climate change and access to variouscommunity resources. They also studied environmental movements broadly covered under theaegis of neo-social movements, by focusing on local and global issues raised by them anddrawing attention to participation of all social classes in the movements, organizational structure,motivation, successes and impact. On the other hand environmental sociologists took a neo-Durkheimian view of society and maintained that among other things society is shaped byenvironment. This module attempts to expose students to certain basic concepts in environmentstudies in sociology such as the concept of sustainable development, population-environmentlink and environmental movements.
 
Slide 2
COMPLEX LINKAGESThe two approaches mentiodependent and independentseparation between man andingenuity has constantly beenature, assigning new meaniman and nature. In the age otransformationto alter the strterm natural? To quote:We inhabit a triangularnature and non-cultivateoccur (in either directiosociety (pollution, constrand so on) and between hcultivated nature (HarveyWhich view among the tFIGURE 11.1:ned above examine the same relationshiariable are interchanged. There are also sonature as logical categories. In their view,n working on nature, modifying it, assignngs to humanness itself, and redefining th
 
genetic engineering, use of techniques of cture and characteristics of genes directly horld of society (including human biologicanature. Interactions between them are al) between non-cultivated nature and cultiction, irrigation) and non-cultivated natureuman biological and social existence and bet al., 2002,1).o is more conducive to study population-envRIANGULAR WORLD OF SOCIETY ANbut in the two thee who do not acceptover centuries humaning new meanings torelationship betweenmolecular cloningandow one can define theexistence), cultivatedso triangular. Impactsated nature, between(earthquakes, virusesth cultivated and non-ironment link?NATURE
 
Slide 3
At the empirical level linking population and environment is quite problematic because bothpopulation and environment refer to vectors of different conditions and complex processes.Population variables refer to size, growth rate, composition, structure, fertility, mortality,migration, etc. Environment factors refer to quality of air, water, soil, sound, minerals,agricultural and forest produce, and various types of pollutants with ill defined levels of permissible toxicity. Obviously, the effect of size of population on proximate variables of development may quantitatively and qualitatively differ from effect of aging on the same.Similarly the effect of climatic change on birth rate will be different from its effect on migrationand occupational mobility.In this lecture we focus more on the connection between population processes andsustainable development. It may be noted that the concept of sustainable development combinesthe concept of development as well as environmental quality.WHAT IS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT?
The idea of sustainable development is simple.
All of us want development. There is no doubtabout that. Yet, we also want that development should be sustained and the fruits of developmentshould be available to all including the most vulnerable sections of society and the nextgenerations. Development with benefits confined to some and to members of the presentgeneration only may be called development but not sustainable development. In this framework,development need to be re-examined in the framework of theories of sustainable development,and they have to go beyond the effect of population growth on savings, capital and growth rate of income.Yet the term social development has been used in multivocal sense having multiple meanings.Sustainability has been conceptualized in several ways. The dictionary meaning of the word“sustainable” is that it is a thing that can be kept up, maintained or prolonged. Thus sustainabledevelopment may be defined as that process of development which can last. The State of WorldPopulation 1992, the report prepared by United Nations Population Fund quotes the followingdefinitions of sustainable development:

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