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Historical Development of Teaching as a Profession

Historical Development of Teaching as a Profession

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teachig as a profession
 earch for its historical development i the ancient and middle ages
Submitted by:
Mark Angelo A. OrdonioEDUC 122 - FJune 22, 2012
middle east
In Mesopotamia, the early logographic system of cu-neiform script took many years to master; thus, fewwere hired as scribes to be trained in its reading andwriting. Only royal offspring and sons of the rich andprofessionals such as scribes, physicians, and templeadministrators, were schooled. The other boys weretaught to trade, the other girls were left home forhousekeeping and cooking.When a syllabic script became more widespread,many of the population became literate. Later still inBabylonian times, there were libraries in most townsand temples, from which arose a whole social class of scribes, mostly employed in agriculture.In ancient Egypt, literacy was concentrated amongand educated elite of scribes. Only people from cer-tain backgrounds were allowed to train to becamescribes, in the service of temple, pharaonic, and mili-tary authorities. The hieroglyph system was always
difficult to learn, preserving the scribes’ status. The
rate of literacy in Pharaonic Egypt during most peri-ods from 3rd to 1st millennium BC has been estimat-ed at not more than one percent.In ancient Israel, high priests caused schools to beopened to be able to read, learn, teach, and write theTorah, the fundamental religious text. Emphasiswas given on developing good memory skills in addi-tion to comprehensive oral repetition. Despite thisschooling system, the literacy rate was reportedabout three percent, most children of which were notable to write even their own name.
ancient civilizations
teachig based on one gender and social status
In ancient India, during the Vedic period from aboutto 1500 BC to 600 BC, most education was based onthe Veda: hymns, formulas, and incantations, recitedor chanted by priests of a pre-Hindu tradition, andlater Hindu texts and scriptures. Education, at firstfreely available in Vedic society, became over timemore discriminatory as the caste system , originallybased on occupation evolved, with the
(priests) being the most privileged of the castes.The oldest of the Upanishads, another part of theHindu scriptures, encouraged an exploratory learn-ing process where teachers and students were co-travellers in a search for truth. The teaching meth-ods used reasoning and questioning; however, noth-ing was labelled as the final answer.The Gurukul system of education supported tradi-tional Hindu residential schools of learning; typically
the teacher’s house or a monastery. Education was
free, but students from well-to-do families paid
“Gurudakshina,” a voluntary contribution after the
completion of their studies. At the Gurukuls, theteachers imparted knowledge of religion, scriptures,philosophy, literature, warfare, statecraft, medicine,astrology, and history. The corpus of Sanskrit litera-ture encompasses a rich tradition of poetry and dra-ma as well as technical scientific, philosophical, andgenerally Hindu religious texts, though many centraltexts of Buddhism and Jainism have also been com-posed in Sanskrit.
One of the most learned men of all time, Confucius became the first private teacher in history. Born of a oncenoble family fallen on a hard time of the state, he strived as an adolescent for knowledge for nowhere was he
allowed for education; all the teachers were government officials and there was no way around the State’s poli-
cy. Within his perseverance to learn and to teach, people sought him out to have their sons taught.During the Zhou Dynasty (1045 BC to 256 BC), there five national schools in the capital city for the aristocratsand nobility. The schools mainly taught the Six Arts: rites, music, archery, charioteering, calligraphy, andmathematics. According to the Book of Rituals, at age twelve, boys learned arts related to ritual music anddance and when older, archery and chariot driving. Girls learned ritual, correct deportment, silk productionand weaving.During the Han Dynasty (206 BC to 221 AD), boys were taught at age seven reading, writing and calculation.In 124 BC, Emperor Wudi established Imperial Academy, the curriculum of which was Five Classics of Confu-
cius. Later during the Ch’in Dynasty (246
-207 BC), a hierarchy of officials was set up to provide central controlover the outlying areas of the empire. TO enter this hierarchy, both literacy and knowledge of the increasingbody of philosophy were required.
formal education i the middle ages
Initiatig teachig as a profession based on various disciplies
greece & rome
In the city-states of ancient Greece, most educationwas private, except in Sparta. In Athens, aside fromthe two-year military training, the state played littlepart in schooling. Anyone could open a school anddecide the curriculum. Parents could choose a schooloffering the subjects they wanted their children tolearn; however, girls rarely received formal educa-tion. The richest students continued their educationby studying with sophists, from whom they couldlearn subjects earned by the elite classes.The education system in the Greek city-state of Sparta was entirely different, designed to createwarriors with complete obedience, courage, andphysical perfection. At seven, boys were taken awayform their homes to live in dormitories or militarybarracks to learn sports, endurance and fighting,and little else, with harsh discipline; most of the pop-ulation was illiterate.The first schools in Ancient Rome arose by the mid-dle of 4th century BC, concerned with basic socializa-tion and rudimentary education of young Romanchildren. At the height of the Roman Republic, andlater the Roman Empire, the Roman educational sys-tem gradually found its final form. Normally bothboys and girls were educated, though not necessarilytogether. In a system much like the one that predom-inates in the modern world, the Roman educationsystem developed arranged schools in tiers. The edu-cator Quintilian recognized the importance of start-ing education as early as possible, noting thatmemory is retentive at an early age.
islamic world
During the 6th and 7th centuries, the Academy of Gundishapur, originally the intellectual center of theSassanid empire and subsequently a Muslim centerof learning, offered training in medicine, philosophy,theology, and science. The faculty were versed notonly in Zoroastrian and Persian traditions, but inGreek and Indian learning as well.The House of Wisdom in Baghdad was a library,translation and educational center from the 9th to13th centuries. Works on astrology, mathematics,agriculture, medicine, and philosophy were translat-ed. Drawing on Persian, Indian, and Greek texts,including those of Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle, Hip-pocrates, Euclid, Plotinus, Galen, Sushruta, Chara-ka, Aryabhata and Brahmagupta, the scholars accu-mulated a great collection of knowledge in the world,and built on it through their own discoveries. TheHouse was unrivalled center for the study of human-ities and for sciences, including mathematics, astron-omy, medicine, chemistry, geography, and zoology.
Baghdad was known as the world’s richest city and
center for intellectual development of the time, andhad a population of over a million, the largest in itstime.In the 15th and 16th centuries, the town of Timbuk-tu in the West African nation of Mali became an Is-lamic center of learning with students coming fromas far away as the Middle East. The town was hometo the prestigious Sankore university and other mad-rasas., primary focus of which is teaching the
central and south america
 Aztec, an ethnic group in central Mexico, had their children educated with the parents, supervised by the au-thorities of their
. Part of the education involved learning a collection of sayings of the old(
) that embodied the Aztecs’ ideals. Judged by their language, most of the
seemedto have the evolved over several centuries, predating the Aztecs and most likely adopted from other cultures.Inca education on the other hand was divided into two principal spheres: education for the upper classes andeducation for the general population. The royal classes and a few specifically chosen individuals from the prov-inces of the Empire were formally educated by the
(wise men), while the general population learnedknowledge and skills from their immediate forbears.The
constituted a special class of men similar to the bards of Great Britain, including philosophers,poets, and priests who kept the oral histories of the Incas alive by imparting the knowledge of their culture,history, customs, traditions throughout the kingdom. Considered the most highly educated and respected menin the empire,
were largely entrusted with educating those of royal blood, as well as other youngmembers of conquered cultures specially chosen to administer the regions. Thus education throughout territo-ries was socially discriminatory, most people not receiving the formal education that royalty received.

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