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Practical Plumbing Engineering Design Vol 4 2004

Practical Plumbing Engineering Design Vol 4 2004

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Published by Rodrigue Barbar

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Published by: Rodrigue Barbar on Sep 04, 2012
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It has been said that without plumbing fixturesthere would be no indoor plumbing. A plumbingfixture is supplied with water, discharges waterand/or waste, and performs a function for theuser. Each fixture is designed for a specific ac-tivity to maintain public health and sanitation.As such, plumbing fixtures are often referred toas “sanitaryware.”The standard plumbing fixtures used in aplumbing system include1.Water closets2.Urinals3.Lavatories4.Kitchen sinks5.Service sinks6.Sinks7.Laundry trays8.Drinking fountains9.Showers10.Bathtubs11.Bidets12.Floor drains13.Emergency fixtures.In addition, there are fixture fittings used inconnection with these plumbing fixtures, includ-ing1.Faucets and fixture fittings2.Shower valves3.Tub fillers.
The surface of any plumbing fixture must besmooth, impervious, and readily cleanable tomaintain a high level of sanitation. Fixture ma-terials are selected based on these requirements.Common plumbing fixture materials include thefollowing:
Vitreous china
This is a unique material thatis specially suited for plumbing fixtures. Un-like other ceramic materials, vitreous chinawill not absorb water on surfaces that arenot glazed. It is not porous. While vitreouschina plumbing fixture surfaces are glazed,the inside waterways are not. The exteriorglazing provides a nice finish that is readilycleaned. Vitreous china is also an extremelystrong material.Because vitreous china is nonporous, it hasa very high shrinkage rate when fired in akiln. This accounts for the slight differencebetween otherwise identical plumbing fix-tures.
 Nonvitreous china
Nonvitreous china is a po-rous ceramic that requires glazing to preventany water absorption. Use of nonvitreouschina for lavatories and similar fixtures hasgrown in popularity in recent years. The ad-vantage of nonvitreous china is that there isnot a high shrinkage rate. This allows the fix-ture to be more ornately designed.
 Enameled cast iron
Enameled cast iron fix-tures have a base that is a high-grade castiron. The exposed surfaces have an enam-eled coating, which is fused to the cast iron,resulting in a hard, glossy, opaque, and acid-
ASPE Data Book — Volume 42
resistant surface. Enameled cast iron plumb-ing fixtures are strong, ductile, and longlasting.
Porcelain enameled steel
Porcelain enameledsteel is a substantially vitreous or glossy in-organic coating that is bonded to sheet steelby fusion. The sheet steel must be designedfor the application of the porcelain enamel toproduce a high-quality product.
Stainless steel
A variety of stainless steelsare used to produce plumbing fixtures. Thedifferent types include types 316, 304, 302,301, 202, 201, and 430. One of the key in-gredients in stainless steel is nickel. A highernickel content tends to produce a superiorfinish in the stainless steel. Types 302 and304 have 8% nickel and Type 316 has 10%nickel.
Plastic is a generic category for a va-riety of synthetic materials used in plumbingfixtures. The various plastic materials usedto produce plumbing fixtures include acry-lonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS); polyvinylchloride (PVC); gel-coated, fiberglass-rein-forced plastic; acrylic; cultured marble;cast-filled fiberglass; polyester; cast-filledacrylic; gel-coated plastic; and culturedmarble acrylic. Plastics used in plumbing fix-tures are subject to numerous tests todetermine their quality. Some of the testingincludes an ignition (torch) test, a cigaretteburn test, a stain-resistance test, and achemical-resistance test.
This is an older material used pre-dominantly in the manufacture of laundrytrays and service sinks. Soapstone is steatite,which is extremely heavy and very durable.
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) andAmerican National Standards Institute (ANSI)A117.1,
 Accessible and Usable Buildings anFacilities
, require certain plumbing fixtures tobe accessible. The requirements for accessibil-ity are addressed in
 ASPE Data Book 
, Volume 1,Chapter 6.
Plumbing fixtures are regulated by nationallydeveloped consensus standards. These stan-dards specify the material, fixture design, andtesting requirements.While the standards for plumbing fixturesare considered voluntary, with reference to thestandards in the plumbing code, the require-ments become mandatory. Most fixturemanufacturers have their products certified bya third-party testing laboratory as being in con-formance with the applicable standard.Table 1-1 identifies the most common con-sensus standards regulating plumbing fixtures.A complete list of standards is found in
 Data Book,
Volume 1, Chapter 2.
Table 1-1 Plumbing Fixture Standards
Plumbing FixtureApplicable StandardFixture Material
Water closetANSI/ASME A112.19.2Vitreous china ANSI Z124.4PlasticUrinalANSI/ASME A112.19.2Vitreous china ANSI Z124.9PlasticLavatoryANSI/ASME A112.19.1Enameled cast iron ANSI/ASME A112.19.2Vitreous china ANSI/ASME A112.19.3Stainless steel ANSI/ASME A112.19.4Porcelain enameled steel ANSI/ASME A112.19.9Nonvitreous china ANSI Z124.3PlasticSinkANSI/ASME A112.19.1Enameled cast iron ANSI/ASME A112.19.2Vitreous china ANSI/ASME A112.19.3Stainless steel ANSI/ASME A112.19.4Porcelain enameled steel ANSI/ASME A112.19.9Nonvitreous china ANSI Z124.6PlasticDrinking fountainANSI/ASME A112.19.1Enameled cast iron ANSI/ASME A112.19.2Vitreous china ANSI/ASME A112.19.9Nonvitreous china ARI 1010Water coolersShowerANSI Z124.2PlasticBathtubANSI/ASME A112.19.1Enameled cast iron ANSI/ASME A112.19.4Porcelain enameled steel ANSI/ASME A112.19.9Nonvitreous china ANSI Z124.1PlasticBidetANSI/ASME A112.19.2Vitreous china ANSI/ASME A112.19.9Nonvitreous chinaFloor drainANSI/ASME A112.6.3All materialsEmergency fixturesANSI Z358.1All materialsFaucets and fixture fittingsANSI/ASME A112.18.1All materialsWaste fittingsANSI/ASME A112.18.2All materials
3Chapter 1 — Plumbing Fixtures
Passage of the Plumbing Product Efficiency Actof 1992 by the US government changed the de-sign of a water closet. It imposed a maximumflushing rate of 1.6 gallons per flush (gpf) (6 Lper flush). This was a significant drop in thequantity of water used, previously 3.5 gal perflush, and was considered to be a water savings.Prior to the first enactment of water conserva-tion in the late 1970s, water closets typicallyflushed between 5 and 7 gal of water. The great-est water use, 7 gal per flush, was by blowoutwater closets.With the modification in water flush volume,the style of each manufacturer’s water closetchanged. The former terminology for identifyingwater closets no longer fit. Water closets werepreviously categorized as blowout, siphon jet,washout, reverse trap, and wash down. (See Fig-ure 1-1.) The new style of 1.6 gpf water closetsfit between the cracks of these old categories.The standards have since changed, no longeridentifying a water closet by these designations.Water closets are currently placed into oneof three categories:
 A close-coupled water close
is one with a two-piece tank and bowl fixture.
 A one-piece water close
is, as it suggests, onewith the tank and bowl as one piece.
 A flushometer style water close
is a bowl witha spud connection that receives the connec-tion from a flushometer valve. Flushometertype water closets are also referred to as topspud” or “back spud bowls.” The “spud” isthe name for the connection for theflushometer valve and the top or rear identi-fies the location of the spud. (See Figure 1-2.)There are also three distinct means for iden-tifying the flushing of a water closet:In
a gravity flush
, used with tank type waterclosets, the water is not under pressure andflushes by gravity.With
a flushometer tank,
also for tank typewater closets, however, the water is stored ina pressurized vessel and flushed under a pres-sure ranging between 25 and 35 psi.A
 flushometer valve
type of flush uses thewater supply line pressure to flush the watercloset. Because of the demand for a flush of a large volume of water in a short period of time, the water supply pipe must be larger indiameter than that for a gravity or flushometertank type of flush.
Figure 1-1 The older styles of water closets were identified as (A) reverse trap,(B) blowout, and (C) siphon jet, to name a few. Though still used in the indus-try, these terms are no longer used in the standards.(A)(B)(C)Figure 1-2 Water closets are identified as(A) close coupled, (B) one piece, and (C)flushometer types.(A)(B)(C)

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