M. B. Gillespie
Progress Energy,8202 West Venable Street,Crystal River, FL 34429e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
W. Z. Black
e-mail: email@example.comGeorge W. Woodruff School of MechanicalEngineering,Georgia Institute of Technology,Atlanta, GA 30332-0405
Local Convective Heat TransferFrom a Constant Heat Flux FlatPlate Cooled by Synthetic Air Jets
The effects of a small-scale, rectangular synthetic air jet on the local convective heat transfer from a ﬂat, heated surface were measured experimentally. The synthetic jet impinges normal to the surface and induces small-scale motions by zero-net mass ﬂux,time-periodic entrainment, and ejection of ambient air at frequencies whose periods are far higher than the characteristic thermal time scale. The velocity ﬁeld between the jet oriﬁce and the target plate is measured in planar cross sections using particle imagevelocimetry and is related to the local heat transfer from the plate. The present work suggests that synthetic jets can lead to substantial enhancement of the local heat transfer from heated surfaces by strong mixing that disrupts the surface thermal boundary layer.The dependence of the local heat transfer coefﬁcient on the primary parameters of jet motion is characterized over a range of operating conditions.
Keywords: experimental heat transfer, jet impingement, pulsating air jets, oscillatory ﬂow
The ability to dissipate heat at high ﬂux levels while maintain-ing relatively low component temperatures is a formidable task facing thermal engineers. The primary example of this challengingproblem is the quest to cool microelectronic packages as the levelof power dissipation from these systems continues to increasewhile the size of packages continues to shrink at acceleratingrates. Innovative cooling techniques that require minimal powerconsumption are needed to maintain package junction tempera-tures at tolerable levels. In the past, natural convection was thepreferred mechanism for cooling low-cost consumer devices. Asheat dissipation rates have increased, cooling schemes have reliedupon fan-induced, global air motion. However, the abrupt increasein recent years of hardware functionality and complexity, andhence, power consumption, has quickly surpassed the cooling lim-its of natural convection and simply designed forced convectionsystems. As a result, designers have had to develop new, inexpen-sive and compact thermal management methods to remove heatfrom small surfaces.Limitations in heat transfer from small discrete packages existbecause the ﬂow structure generated by the cooling scheme is notoften effectively coupled to the larger, global heat removal sys-tem. In fact, two important aspects should be considered to im-prove the heat removal from miniature surfaces. First, the en-hancement of surface heat transfer is possible through theexploitation of small-scale vortex motion and through the promo-tion of local entrainment and mixing of cool ambient air. Theincrease in heat transfer results from increased turbulence and areduced thermal boundary layer at the heated surface. Second, thehardware for direct heat removal should scale appropriately withthe size of the surface and it should operate with minimal power.This paper reports on small, low-speed, low-power, pulsating jetsthat are capable of exploiting small-scale turbulent vortices, andtherefore are able to meet the requirements of creating high heattransfer rates on miniature heated surfaces.
Although a few papers have discussed the ﬂuidcharacteristics of small-scale pulsating jets, they include no dataregarding the jets’heat transfer characteristics. This paper presentsan experimental investigation of the ﬂow ﬁeld and heat transfercharacteristics of a rectangular, synthetic jet impinging normallyon a ﬂat, heated surface. Synthetic jets are a particularly attractivecandidate for cooling miniature surfaces like electronic packagesbecause they can affect the heat transfer on extremely small scalesand enhance the transport and mixing of the heated ﬂuid. Further-more, because these jets are zero net mass ﬂux in nature they canbe easily integrated into complex geometries, require relativelylow operating power, are simple to design and fabricate and, un-like traditional fans or steady jets, they do not require externalducting. Synthetic jets are ideal devices for use where heat re-moval is required from small, discrete surfaces.
Since the surface area of the package can-not be easily modiﬁed and the maximum temperature differencefor heat transfer is clearly limited by the junction temperature of the electronic package and the local ambient temperature, themost effective means of enhancing the local heat transfer from apackage is to maximize the local heat transfer coefﬁcient. A num-ber of earlier investigations recognized the advantages and rela-tively high heat transfer coefﬁcients that can be produced bysteady impingement ﬂow involving round jets, slot jets, and arraysof jets
. In addition, a number of experiments were conductedto characterize the convective heat transfer of impinging steadyair jets on ﬂat surfaces
. In these investigations, the imping-ing jet Reynolds number was on the order of 1000 to 10,000.Until recently, the problem of heat transfer between a surfaceand a pulsating jet had been treated as a steady-state problem. Fewstudies have been performed with pulsating, impinging jet ﬂowsdespite their use in cooling, heating, and drying processes. Usingair as the heat transfer ﬂuid, experiments measured spatially andtemporally averaged heat transfer rates from a ﬂat, isothermalsurface that was cooled by a pulsating, circular air jet with 1200
12,000 and 10
. For the range of variablescovered in their investigation, no apparent correlation was found
Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the J
. Manuscript received March 29, 2005; ﬁnal manuscript re-ceived February 22, 2006. Review conducted by Phillip M. Ligrani. Paper presentedat the 2005 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference
, July 17–21,2005, Denver, CO.
Vol. 128, OCTOBER 2006
Copyright © 2006 by ASME Transactions of the ASME
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