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43266961-Ashrae-Journal-62-1

43266961-Ashrae-Journal-62-1

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2 ASHRAE Journal ashrae.org January 2005
tandard 62-21 Addendum 62
 n
ingle-PathMultiple-Zone ystem Design
By Dennis Stanke,
Member ASHRAE
out te utoDennis Stanke
is a staff applications engineer  wit Trane, a Crosse, is. e is vice cair of SPC 62.1.
SI/ASHRAE Standard 62-2001,
Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality,
1
as modified by Addendum 62,
2
prescribes newminimum breathing-zone ventilation rates and new calculation proce-dures to find intake airflow for different ventilation systems. Previousartices
,
discussed the design of “simple” ventilation systems (single-zone, 100% outdoor-air, and changeover-bypass VAV) in compliance wit enum
n
requirements. ere, we examine te esign of amore compex set of ventiation systems, namey singe-pat, mutipe-zone recircuating systems.
one, recirculating ventilation systems.or instance, constant-voume systemsit termina reeat, traitiona constant-olume multizone systems, single-ductAV systems, and single-fan dual-ductAV systems all provide ventilation froma single source or path. (A single-fan,ua-uct system suppies air to eacspace using two ierent ucts, ut teair in each duct contains the same fractionof outdoor air, because one fan—a singlesource—delivers the same air mixture toeach duct.) Other systems have multipleentiation pats, incuing ua-an,ua-uct VV systems an VV systemsith fan-powered or induction terminalunits. Single-duct VAV systems withseries fan-powered boxes are alwaysua-pat ventiation systems, ut toseit parae an-powere oxes aresingle-path with the local fan off and dual-path with it on. Although any of hese HVAC systems may be used in vari-Although the Ventilation Rate Pro-ceure in Stanar 2 as requirespeci c cacuations (Equation -) or multiple-zone systems since 1989, thecalculation procedure was sketchy at best; consequently, it was widely misun-derstood and largely ignored by design-ers. enum 2 incues a etaiecacuation proceure or mutipe-zonesystem design. Use of this procedure isexpected to increase consistency amongdesigners and reduce the tendency to de-sign multiple-zone systems—especiallyVV systems—tat provie inaequateventiation or some uy occupie zones.Addendum 62 also includes operationalcontrol options that can be used to modu-late ventilation capacity as ventilationload and/or efficiency varies, but theseoptions are et to a uture artice. Teoowing iscussion covers ony esigncalculations.Many HVAC systems are configured as“single-supply” or single-path, multiple-
 A 
 
2005, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). Reprinted by permission from ASHRAE Journal, (Vol. 47, No. 1, January 2005). This article may notbe copied nor distributed in either paper or digital form without ASHRAE’s permission.
 
January 2005 ASHRAE Journal 29
outoor air in its primary airstream. In te past, many esignerssimply added the zone outdoor airflow requirements and set theintake airflow to match this sum, which resulted in a very lowoutdoor-air fraction and many underventilated zones.Some esigners went to te oter extreme, ning te igestraction o outoor air neee y any zone in te system ansetting the intake airflow to provide this fraction at all times.This approach considers only first-pass outdoor air, giving nocredit for unused recirculated outdoor air, and results in a veryhigh outdoor-air fraction and overventilation in all zones.Proper esign in compiance wit enum 2
n
cacuation proceures stries a aance etween tese extremes, appro- priately accounting for both critical-zone needs and unused,recirculated outdoor air.Let’s look at an example office building (
 Figure 2
). We as-sumed that thermal comfort can be achieved using only eightVV termostats, wit eac termostat contro-ing one or more VV oxes. We consiere eacof these “comfort zones” (or “HVAC zones” per ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001) as a separate “ven-tilation zone.”According to Addendum 62
n
a ventilation zones “one occupie space or severa occupie spaceswit simiar occupancy category, occupant en-sity, zone air-distribution effectiveness, and zone primary airflow per unit area.Most (but not all) HVAC zones qualify asventiation zones. Te area an popuation or eac zone in tis exampe were seecte to ep iustrate tecalculations rather than to reflect typical zone sizes or popula-tion densities.To comply with Addendum 62 our design calculations begin by finding the ventilation needs at the zone level and concue y etermining te require intae air ow at tesystem eve.
Zone entiation Cacuations
Following the procedure under “zone calculations” in Sec-tion 6.2.1, we found zone outdoor airflow (
 z 
) for each zone(
 Figure 3
):. Reerring to enum 2 Tae . (not sown), ooup the prescribed minimum
 people outdoor-air rate
(
 p
) and the prescribed minimum building
rea outdoor-air rate
(
a
). In our example office building, each zone needs 5 cfm/person and 0.06cmt². Using tese vaues, aong wit te esign
 zone popua-tion
(
 P 
) an
 zone oor area
(), n te minimum
reating- zone outdoor airflow
by solving Equation 6-1 (
 z 
= R
 p
× P 
 z 
+
a
× A
 z 
). Either peak or average expected occupancy may beous uiing types, we narrow our iscussion to a singe-uctVAV system, with throttling VAV boxes for interior zones and reheat VAV boxes in perimeter zones, applied in an exampleoffice building.
Demonstrating Compiance y Exampe
ur example system (
 Figure 1
) includes a central air handler,with a modulating outdoor-air damper that may be controlled as an economizer; a variable-volume supply fan to deliver  primary air; cooling-only, throttling VAV boxes in the interior ones; trotting VV oxes wit eectric reeat in te perim-eter zones; a centra return an; an a centra reie amper or  building pressure control. Although we won’t discuss systemcontrol details here, it’s important that we share the same mental picture” of the VAV system we’re designing:• Intake airflow is sensed and maintained by adjusting thentae amper position. (Oten, te return- anoutoor-air ampers are ine suc tat cosingthe outdoor-air damper opens the return-air damper  proportionately. Alternately, these dampers can becontrolled separately to reduce fan energy whilemaintaining proper intake airflow, but this hasno impact on ventiation requirements at esignconitions.)• Primary air temperature is sensed and main-tained by sequentially adjusting the heating-coilcontrol valve, economizer dampers, and cooling-coi contro vave.Duct pressure is sense an maintaine at setpoint y a- justing the primary fan capacity (via fan speed, for instance,or inlet guide vane position).• Zone temperature is sensed and maintained at the cool-ng setpoint by adjusting the setpoint for VAV-box primaryair ow.VV-ox air ow is sense an maintaine at setpoint yadjusting the position of the VAV-box damper.• For zones that need reheat, zone temperature is sensed and maintained at the heating setpoint by adjusting reheat capacity(electric reheat or a hot water valve) and, thereby, discharge air temperature.Return air penum pressure (at te centra air aner) issensed and maintained by adjusting return fan capacity.• Building pressure is sensed and maintained between set lim-ts by adjusting the relief (central exhaust) damper position.Since mutipe-zone systems provie te same primary air mixture to a zones, te raction o outoor air in te primaryairstream must be sufficient to deliver the outdoor airflow needed  by the “critical” zone—the zone needing the greatest fraction of 
 
30 ASHRAE Journal ashrae.org January 2005
used to establish
 P 
 z 
; we used peak population in all zones. (Anearlier article
3
covered population-averaging calculations indetail. See www.ashrae.org for the most current version.)For our example, the west offices need 
 z 
= 5 × 20 + 0.0× 2,000 = 00 + 20 = 220 cm or proper ventiation in tereating zone.2. Look up
 zone air-distribution effectiveness
(
 z 
), based on the air-distribution configuration and the default values presented in Addendum 62
n
Table.2 (not sown). o our exampeones use overea iusers an cei-ing returns, and they all receive 55°F primary air, so
 z 
= 1.0 when cooling.If the thermostat calls for heat in anyof the perimeter zones, primary air isreeate an iscarge at 95°F; so,
 z 
= 0.8 wen eating.3. Find the minimum
 zone outdoor airflow
by solving Equation 6-2 (
oz 
=
 z 
 / 
 z 
) for both cooling and heating opera-tion. For example, the west offices need 
oz 
= 220
/
.0 = 220 cm at te iuserswen cooing, an
oz 
= 220
/
0.8 = 275cfm when heating.
System entiation Cacuations
As in Standard 62-1989, -1999, and -2001, Addendum 62recognizes tat mutipe-zone recircuating systems mustoverventiate some zones to propery ventiate a zones. Italso recognizes that “unused” outdoor air recirculated fromoverventilated zones reduces the required intake airflow, butthat unused outdoor air that leaves the building (by exhaust or ex tration) increases te require intae air ow. Proper ac-counting resuts in a ventiation creit or recircuate outooair and a ventilation debit for exhausted outdoor air.Addendum 62
n
makes this accounting straightforward byrequiring a specific calculation procedure to determine theminimum
outdoor-air intake flow
based on the
 system ventila-tion efficiency
inherent in every multiple-zone recirculatingsystem.arlier versions of the standard required use of the “mul-tiple-space” equation,
= X 
/ (
+ X – Z
)
to find the fractiono intae air neee. Tis approac resute in aout te sameintae air ow as enum 2 or singe-pat systems; utwithout a clear procedural explanation, the equation was widelymisunderstood and largely ignored by designers.esigns based on the 62
n
procedure result in proper ventila-tion for the critical zone at worst-case design conditions whileallowing credit for “good” outdoor air that recirculates froma oter overventiate zones.rom te zone cacuations tat we compete earier, weknow how much outdoor airflow must reach the diffusers ineach zone. Now, let’s figure out the minimum required intakeairflow for the system at design conditions.eore we start, we sou recognize someting tat -enum 2 impies ut oesnt expain:
Te “worst-case” or highest required intake airflow may or may not occur at thedesign cooling condition
(when system primary airflow is high-est). In some cases, it may actually occur at the design heatingcondition (when zone primary airflow values are very low). With
 
In earlier versions of the standard, only “intermittent oc-cupancy” zones at peak population for three hours or lesscould be designed for ventilation at the average populationbut not less than one-half of the peak population. Now, anyzone may be designed for average population. According tothe “short-term conditions” section of Addendum 62
 n
, thesystem must be designed to deliver the required outdoorairflow to each occupied breathing zone.However, if occupancy or intake airflow varies, the ventila-ton system esgn may e ase on average contons overa specific time period rather than on peak conditions. Theaveraging time
 
or a given zone is determined according toEquation 6-9
=
oz
using zone volume and the breath-ing-zone outdoor airflow that would be needed at peak popula-tion.
equals three zone time constants, the time it takes for
 
contaminant concentration to achieve a nearly steady-statevalue in response to a step change in contaminant source.When applied to population, this averaging approach replacesthe population-averaging option for “intermittent occupancy”spaces, found in previous versions of the standard, Averaging time may be applied to make design ad- justments when changing conditions in the zone can bepredicted. For instance, if zone population fluctuations arepredictable, then the design breathing-zone outdoor airflowmay be calculated based on the highest average populationover any
-minute period.
 veraging Zone Population for Ventilation System Design
Relief eturn rVariable-SeedDamper Plenum
igure : ariabe air voume reeat system.

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