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Use of Principal Axis Factor Scores in a Multiple Linear Regression Model in Predicting Body Weight In

Use of Principal Axis Factor Scores in a Multiple Linear Regression Model in Predicting Body Weight In

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Published by: Moses Ogah on Sep 05, 2012
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Proceedings of 34th Annual conference of Genetic Society of Nigeria 2010
Use of Principal Axis Factor Scores in a Multiple Linear Regression Model inPredicting Body Weight in a Naked Neck Chicken Genotype
D. M. Ogah* , D. I. Hassan and I. S . Musa
 
Animal Science Dept. College of agriculture pmb 33 lafia, Nasarawa State , Nigeriamosesdogah@yahoo.com
Abstract
The relationship between body weight and six body measurements body length (BL), chestcircumference (CC), shank length (Sl), thigh length (Tl) , keel length (Kl) and winglength,(Wl ) in adult male naked neck chicken genotype were examined by using principalaxis factor scores in a linear multiple regression model .Two factors (body width and thighlength ) with eigen values greater than 1 were selected as independent or explanatoryvariables and used for multiple linear regression analysis . It was found that the two factorshad significant (p<0.001) effect on live weight determination and account for 62.19% of thevariation in adult male naked neck chicken body weight .Keywords: communality, factor scores, multiple regression, naked neck chicken
Introduction
There has been reports of the unique adaptive features of the local chickens in tropicalregions predisposing them to adapt to the hot humid condition , there relative small size ,their general flight nature , tolerance to some disease and parasites, some fancy colourpattern of mottling extension and spottling . Among this features the major genes of frizzlingand naked neck are important as they enhance the thermoregulatory activity of the bird(Ikeobi
et al
.,1996, and Peters
et al.,
2002) . These chicken genotypes can be improvedthrough breeding techniques for enhance body weight for meat supply . Selection towardsmeatiness improvement requires reliable and easy to apply methods for estimating theperformance and breeding value of poultry species(Kleczek 
et al
., 2006)Multiple regression and factor analysis enable interpretation of the multivariate relationshipbetween body weight and some body measurement . it can also be use for predicting assumeddependent variable with assumed independent or explanatory variables.The purpose of this work was to develop a multivariate statistical approach factor analysisaimed at describing objectively the interrelationships existing between body weight and bodymeasurements of the naked neck chicken genotype and to predict body weight from theorthogonal traits derived from principal axis factoring .
Materials and methods
 
Proceedings of 34th Annual conference of Genetic Society of Nigeria 2010
Data on body weight and body measurements were collected from 160 adult male naked neck chicken which were reared semi intensively in rural areas of Doma , in Nasarawa state of Nigeria..The parameters considered include body length (Bl), chest circumference (CC) ,shank length(Sl), thigh length (Tl), Keel length (Kl) and wing length (Wl) and body weightwere measured according to (Solomon 1996).The measurements were carried out from therural household every morning before they are released out for browsing. Kolmogorovsimirnov test was used to assess normality of the variables.Pearson coefficient of correlation( r) among body weight and body measurements wereestimated from the correlation matrix , data were generated for factor analysis using principalaxis factoring .The determinant of the correlation matrix was used to test for multicollinearityand singularity. Anti image correlation, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacyand Bartlett’s test of sphericity (test the null hypothesis that the original correlation matrix isan identity matrix) were computed to test the validity of the factor analysis of the data set .The appropriateness of the factor analysis was further tested using communalities and ratio of cases to variables. Cumulative proportion of variance criterion was employed in determiningthe number of factor to extract. Reproduced and residual correlations were used to test thevalidity of the number of factors extracted. The varimax criterion of the orthogonal rotationmethod was employed in the rotation of the factor matrix to enhance the interpretability of the factor analysis. Principal axis factor is a method which tries to find the lowest number of factor which can account for the variability in the original variable that is associated withthese factors (Wood et al., 1996).If the observed variable are x
1
x
2
…………..x
n
the common factor are F
1
 F
2
…………….Fm and the unique factor s are U
1
U
2
…….U
n
, the variables may beexpressed as this linear function of the factorsX
1
= a
11
F
1
+a
12
F
2
+a
13
F
3
+……………………….a
1m
F
m
+a
1
U
1
 X
2
=a
21
F
1
+a
22
F
2
+a
23
F
3
+…………………………a
2m
F
m
+a
2
U
2
 X
n
=a
n1
F
1
+a
n2
F
2
+a
n3
F
3
+…………………………a
nm
F
m
+a
n
U
n
 Each of these equation is a regression equation, factor analysis seeks to find the coefficienta
11
, a
12
………..a
nm
which best reproduced the observed variables for the factors. Thecoefficient a
11
, a
12
a
nm
are weight in the same way as regression coefficients (because thevariables are standardised the constant is zero).Factor scores were considered as independent variables for predicting body weight using thefollowing multiple regression modelBwt=a+b
1
FS
1
+b
2
FS
2
+eWhere Bwt = body weight , a=regression constant, b=regression coefficient , FS=factorscores and e =error term.
 
Proceedings of 34th Annual conference of Genetic Society of Nigeria 2010
The significance of the regression coefficient was tested with t-statistics while the quality of the regression was assessed using the coefficient of determinant(R
2
). Data analysis waseffected using SPSS 14 (2004) statistical package
Results and Discussion
 Table 1 presents the phenotypic correlation among body weight and body measurements. Thecorrelation matrix were mostly significant (p<0.05 and p<0.01) which conclude that thesecorrelations coefficient may be factorable, though the correlation matrix between the bodyweight and body measurements were low to moderately high range 0.01-.69Factor analysis result using principal axis factor after Varimax rotation of the factor scorestwo factors were extracted which accounted for 62.18% of the total variance of the originalseven variables Table2. Factor pattern coefficient of the rotated factor show the relativecontribution of each traits to a particular factor. The first factor which explained 46.95% of the generalised variance was characterised by high positive loading (factor variatecorrelation) on body width , chest circumference and body length (referred to as size factor).The variable that were associated with the second factor were thigh length and shank length.Thus termed to length factor contributing 15.24%. this similar findings was reported byYakubu et al. (2009) on the prediction of carcass weight using some linear bodymeasurements and weight.Factor score coefficient in Table 3. were used to obtain factor scores values. Factor scorevalues for the selected two factors were used as independent variables in multiple linearregression analysis to determine significant factors for body weight estimate. Since use of interdependent explanatory variables should be treated with caution , particularly whenmulticollinearity has been shown to be associated with unstable estimate of regressioncoefficient (Ibe, 1989, Yakubu, 2009) rendering the estimation of unique effect of thesepredictors impossible. This justify the use of factor score for the weight prediction as theyare orthogonal to each other and are more reliable in estimation..The two factors selected were found to have significant (p<0.001) positive linear relationshipwith body weight indicating that as the body weight will be expected to increase as the valuesof factor 1 and 2 scores increase. Though moderate estimate of total variability (57%) oncombination of the two independent factor in body weight was explained Table 4 . A numberof authors have used factor scores in estimation in poultry and other livestock, Shahin (2000),Ogah et al. (2009 )derived regression equation for estimating live weight in duck, keskin etal.( 2007 )in estimating carcass weight in sheep.It can be concluded that there are considerable correlations between body weight and linearbody measurement of a naked neck bird therefore since this genotype is tropical derived ,improvement in its weight can be through selection considering body measurements.
References

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