CEPR Bad Jobs on the Rise
We define a bad job as one that pays less than $37,000 per year (in inflation-adjusted 2010 dollars);lacks employer-provided health insurance; and has no employer-sponsored retirement plan.By our calculations, about 24 percent of U.S. workers were in a bad job in 2010 (the most recently available data). The share of bad jobs in the economy is substantially higher than it was in 1979, when 18 percent of workers were in a bad job by the same definition. The problems we identify here are long-term and largely unrelated to the Great Recession. Most of the increase in bad jobs
to 22 percent in 2007
occurred before the recession and subsequent weak recovery.Of the three criteria we use, workers did best with respect to earnings. Overall, in 2010, about 53percent of workers were in jobs that paid less than $37,000 per year, down from 59 percent in 1979. A decline in health-insurance coverage, however, was a major driver of the increase in bad jobs. About 47 percent of workers did not have employer-provided health insurance in 2010, up from 30percent in 1979. A deterioration in retirement-plan coverage also contributed to the rise in bad jobs. In 2010, about55 percent of workers did not participate in a retirement plan at work, up from 48 percent in 1979. The increase in bad jobs took place despite a substantial increase in the productive capacity of theU.S. economy over the same period. The typical worker in 2010 was seven years older than in 1979.In 2010, over one-third of US workers had a four-year college degree or more, up from just one-fifth in 1979. On average, workers today also work with more physical capital (plants, machinery,equipment, etc.) and much more sophisticated technology.Given that older and better-educated workers generally receive higher pay and better benefits, we would have expected the share of bad jobs to have declined over the last three decades in step withthese improvements in the quality of the workforce.Between 1979 and 2010, the share of workers with bad jobs, increased for workers at every education level. Workers with less than a high school degree, only a high school degree, and eventhose with some college (including associates degrees) were substantially more likely to be in a badjob in 2010 than they were in 1979. Even among workers with a four-year college degree or more,the share of workers in a bad job was slightly higher in 2010 than it had been three decades earlier.
The decline in the economy’s ability to create good jobs is related to deterioration in the bargaining
power of workers, especially those at the middle and the bottom of the pay scale. The restructuring of the U.S. labor market
including the decline in the inflation-adjusted value of the minimum wage, the fall in unionization, privatization, deregulation, pro-corporate trade agreements, adysfunctional immigration system, and macroeconomic policy that has with few exceptions keptunemployment well above the full employment level
has substantially reduced the bargaining power of U.S. workers, effectively pulling the bottom out of the labor market and increasing theshare of bad jobs in the economy.