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Battery Charger Cum Voltage Analyser

Battery Charger Cum Voltage Analyser

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Published by Mohamed Rizvan

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Published by: Mohamed Rizvan on Sep 05, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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11/06/2013

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circuit ideas
electronics for youMarch 2003
Lead-acid battery chargerwith voLtage anaLyser
D. Mohan KuMar
N
owadays maintenance-ree lead-acidbatteries are common in vehicles,inverters, and UPS systems. I thebattery is let in a poor state o charge, itsuseul lie is shortened. It also reduces thecapacity and rechargeability o the battery.For older types o batteries, a hygrometercan be used to check the specifc gravityo the acid, which, in turn, indicates thecharge condition o the battery. However,you cannot use a hygrometer or sealed-type maintenance-ree batteries. The onlyway to know their charge level is by check-ing their terminal voltage.The circuit presented here can re-plenish the charge in a battery within6-8 hours. It also has a voltage analysingcircuit or quick checking o voltage beorestart o charging, since overcharging maydamage the battery. The voltage analysergives an audio-visual indication o the bat-tery voltage level and also warns about thecritical voltage level at which the batteryrequires immediate charging.The charger circuit consists o a stan-dard step-down 12V AC (2-amp) transorm-er and a bridge rectifer comprising diodesD1 through D4. Capacitor C1 smoothes theAC ripples to provide a clean DC or charg-ing the battery.The battery voltage analyser circuitis built around the popular quad op-ampLM324 that has our separate op-amps(A through D) with dierential inputs.Op-amps have been used here as compara-tors. Switch S2 is a pushswitch, which ispressed momentarily to check the batteryvoltage level beore charging the battery.The non-inverting terminals o op-ampsA through D are connected to the positivesupply rail via a potential divider chaincomprising resistors R1 through R5. Thusthe voltage applied to any non-invertinginput is the ratio o the resistance betweenthat non-inverting terminal and ground tothe total resistance (R1+R2+R3+R4+R5).The resistor chain provides a positive volt-age o above 5V to the non-inverting inputso all op-amps when battery voltage is 12.5Vor more. A reerence voltage o 5V is appliedto the inverting inputs o op-amps via 5Vzener diode ZD1.When the circuit is connected to thebattery and pushswitch S2 is pressed (withS1 open), the battery voltage is sampled bythe analyser circuit. I the supply voltagesample applied to the non-inverting inputo an op-amp exceeds the reerence voltageapplied to the inverting inputs, the outputo the op-amp goes high and the LED con-nected at its output lights up.The dierent levels o battery voltagesare indicated by LED1 through LED4. Allthe LEDs remain lit when the battery isully charged (above 12.5V). The buzzerconnected to the output o IC1 also sounds(when S2 is pressed with S1 kept open) aslong as the voltage o battery is above 9.8V.I the voltage level goes below 9.8V, thebuzzer goes o, which indicates that it’stime to replacethe battery.The status o LEDs or di-erent batteryvoltages isshown in thetable.The circuit
Battery voltage Status of LEDs CommentsRed Green Yellow Orange
<9.8V O O O O Buzzer o >9.8V On O O O Danger level11.5V On On O O Low level12.0V On On On O Normal level12.5V On On On On High level

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