INTRODUCTION TO BIOTECHNOLOGY
Biotechnology has been defined as ‘The application of biological organisms, system orprocesses to manufacturing and service industries’.In other sense, it is the linking of biological processes and techniques- some old, some new- withproduction engineering and electronics.The biotechnology is interconnected to other biological sciences, in particularsmicrobiology, genetics, molecular biology and biochemistry and main is chemical engineering inits widest sense. So, it is not interdisciplinary field, rather it is multidisciplinary, involving awide variety of distinct subject area.The emergence of biotechnology in the 1970s created new opportunities for the world.Almost forty years later, biotechnology is still in its infancy; yet, the industry is quickly,establishing itself, not as another area of scientific inquiry, but as a core technology upon whichmany industries can base their future innovations.
The classic example of biotechnological drugs was proteins obtained from recombinant DNA
Biotechnology now encompasses the use of tissue culture, living cells or cell enzymes to make adefined product.
A biotechnology product is one manufactured by recombinant DNA technology, or a monoclonalantibody, one where genetic manipulation of cells is required.Biological products include those where the starting material may be human or animal tissue ormicrobiological origin and these are modified to give improved products with characteristicswhich are not present in natural origins.
Advantages of Products
• Usually purer than their biological equivalents. i.e. they does not have co-extracted contaminants.• New vaccines are prepared to prevent disease.