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Environmental Change and Security Program Report 1: Feature Articles

Environmental Change and Security Program Report 1: Feature Articles

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Published by The Wilson Center
The first-ever annual report from the Environmental Change and Security Program includes Geoff and David Dabelko's feature on redefining environmental security; Richard Matthew's commentary on demystifying the concept of environmental security; and Marc Levy's call for a third wave of environmental security scholarship. Complete report.
The first-ever annual report from the Environmental Change and Security Program includes Geoff and David Dabelko's feature on redefining environmental security; Richard Matthew's commentary on demystifying the concept of environmental security; and Marc Levy's call for a third wave of environmental security scholarship. Complete report.

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Published by: The Wilson Center on Sep 05, 2012
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1
T
ABLE
OF
C
ONTENTS
F
EATURES
E
NVIRONMENTAL
S
ECURITY
:I
SSUES
OF
C
ONFLICT
AND
R
EDEFINITION
GeoffreyD.andDavidD.Dabelko
3E
NVIRONMENTAL
S
ECURITY
:D
EMYSTIFYING
THE
C
ONCEPT
,C
LARIFYING
THE
S
TAKES
RichardA.Matthew
14W
ORLD
P
OPULATION
G
ROWTH
AND
U.S.N
ATIONAL
S
ECURITY
AlexdeSherbinin
24E
NVIRONMENT
AND
S
ECURITY
:T
HE
C
HALLENGE
OF
I
NTEGRATION
EileenClaussen
40T
IME
FOR
A
T
HIRD
W
AVE
OF
E
NVIRONMENT
AND
S
ECURITY
S
CHOLARSHIP
?
 MarcA.Levy
44
I
N
E
ACH
I
SSUE
O
FFICIAL
S
TATEMENTS
AND
D
OCUMENTS

47
1994and1995U.S.NationalSecurityStrategy
47
WilliamJ.Clinton
50
AlGore
52
MadeleineK.Albright
53
R.JamesWoolsey
53
WilliamJ.Perry
53
 JohnM.Shalikashvili
53
TimothyE.Wirth
54
SherriWassermanGoodman
55
KathleenA.McGinty
55
BillProposedbyRep.BenjaminGilman
58B
OOK
R
EVIEWS

59
UltimateSecurity
59
EcologicalDisaster
60
TheHotZone
and
TheComingPlague

61D
ISCUSSION
G
ROUP
S
UMMARIES

63
CriticalReviewofVariousConceptions
63
ofEnvironmentandSecurityAssesmentofResearchtoDateon
66
EnvironmentalChangeandConflictEnvironmentandSecurity:ToWhatEnd?
71
EnvironmentandSecurity:ByWhatMeans?
73U
PDATE
S
ECTION

79
Non-GovernmentalActivities
79
GovernmentalActivities
83
AcademicandProfessionalMeetings
87
OfficialMeetings
90B
IBLIOGRAPHICAL
G
UIDE
TO
THE
L
ITERATURE

92
 
2
Introduction
S
INCE
THE
C
OLD
W
AR
ENDED
 ,
SCHOLARS
AND
POLICYMAKERS
HAVE
DELIBERATED
OVER
WHETHER
TO
redefinetraditionalnotionsofsecurityinlightofnewthreats.Withinthiscontext,thereisanincreasinglyprominent,multi-disciplinarydebateoverwhetherenvironmentalprob-lems—exacerbatedbydemographicchange—shouldbeconsideredassecurityconcerns.Anincreasingnumberofscholarlyarticleshaveappearedonthesubject,andtheClintonadministrationhasissuedseveralstatements(includedinthis
Report
)thatembraceenviron-mentalproblemsassecurityconcerns.Inaddition,theadministrationhascreatedseveralnewgovernmentofficesthataddress“environmentandsecurity”concerns—mostnotably,a“GlobalEnvironmentalAffairs”DirectorateattheNationalSecurityCouncil,aDepart-mentofDefenseofficefor“EnvironmentalSecurity,”andanofficeofUnderSecretaryof StateforGlobalAffairs.Therangeofissuescitedas“environmentalsecurity”mattersarenumerous,asaretheargumentsofthosewhoopposelinkingenvironmentandsecurityconceptually,linguisti-callyorpractically.TheEnvironmentalChangeandSecurityProject,anditsbi-annual
Report,
aimstoprovideanimpartialforuminwhichpractitionersandscholarswhorarelymeetcanshareideas,andtoexposeawideaudiencetothemyriadargumentsandactivitiesassociatedwith“environmentandsecurity”discussions.SincetheWilsonCenterdoesnottakepositionsonanyissuesandisstrictlynon-partisan,theProject’sDiscussionGroupmeetings(summarizedinthisissue)bringtogetherexpertsfromwidelydivergentideologi-cal,politicalandprofessionalbackgrounds—includingcurrentandformerlegislativeandexecutivebranchofficialsrepresentingnumerousagenciesanddepartments,expertsfromthemilitaryandintelligencecommunities,andrepresentativesfromacademia,non-govern-mentalorganizations,andtheprivatesector.TheProjectdoesnotseektoforgeconsensus, butrathertopromotenewwaysofthinking.Itisourhopethattheseexchanges,andthis
Report,
willhelpfosternetworksofexperts,disseminateinformationaboutdisparatebutrelatedactivities,andultimatelyinformbetterpolicymakingandscholarlyresearch.Thisfirstissueofthe
Report
focusesonNorthAmericanperspectivesandinitiativesonenvironmentandsecurity,andincludesliteraturesurveysandadetailedbibliographytointroducereaderstothewritingstodate.Subsequentissueswillhighlightspecificthemesandenvironmentalproblems,andwillmorefullyincorporateothernations’perspectivesandactivities.Wehopeyoufindthisissuehelpful,andlookforwardtoreceivingyourcomments,suggestionsandcontributions.Sincerely,P.J.SimmonsCoordinator
 
3
EnvironmentalSecurity:IssuesofConflictandRedefinition
byGeoffreyD.DabelkoandDavidD.Dabelko
GeoffreyD.DabelkoisadoctoralstudentintheDepartmentofGovernmentandPoliticsattheUniversityof  Maryland,CollegePark,andProjectAssociatefortheEnvironmentalChangeandSecurityProjectoftheWoodrowWilsonInternationalCenterforScholars.DavidD.DabelkoisProfessorofPoliticalScienceatOhioUniversity,Athens.Acompleteversionofthisarticleappearsintheforthcoming
Environment&Security(“E&S”)
1(1):1995.Theauthorsthank
E&S
co-editorsPaulPainchaudandSimonDalby,andtheConsortiumfortheStudyof EnvironmentalSecurity,forgrantingpermissiontoreprinttheseexcerpts.TheauthorsarealsogratefultoKenConca,PhilippeLePrestre,DennisPirages,P.J.Simmonsandananonymousreviewerfortheirvaluablecomments.
T
HE
CONTEMPORARY
CONCEPT
OF
SECURITY
HAS
EMERGED
LARGELY
IN
THE
CONTEXT
OF
THE
C
OLD
W
AR
.A
T
itsmostbasiclevel,Westernsecuritystudieshavefocusedonmilitarystrategiesfor
nuclear
weaponsandconventionalarmsasinstrumentstoguaranteesecuritywitharmedforce.Militarythreatshavebeencounteredwithmilitarymight.Butthispreoccupationwithamilitaryconceptionofsecurityhasnotbeenwithoutcosts.Thenarrowmilitaryconceptionofsecurityhaslargelyexcludedconsiderationofpotentialnon-militarythreatsandnon-militarymeansofprovidingsecurity.Economicandecologicaldevelop-mentsinanincreasinglyinterdependentworldpresentpotentialthreatsforactorsatalllevelsof analysis.Thecauses,effectsandsolutionsoftheseeconomicandenvironmentalchallengesignorenationalboundaries,callingintoquestionmanyassumptionsofstatistdefinitionsofsecurity.Thenotionof“environmentalsecurity,”conceivedinamultitudeofways,representsanalternativeparadigmfororderingandaddressingthreatsinanincreasinglyinterdependentandenvironmentally-degraded,post-ColdWarworld.ThispaperoutlinessomeofthebenchmarargumentsinNorthAmericanenvironmentandsecuritydebatestohelpreaderssortthroughtheexistingliterature.
1
Referencestovariousauthorsandwritingscorrespondtothebibliographyappearingonpage10.
C
ONTEMPORARY
C
ONCEPTIONS
O
F
S
ECURITY
Moderndefinitionsofsecurityarecloselytiedtoastate’sdefenseofsovereigninterestsbymilitarymeans.Atitsmostfundamentallevel,thetermsecurityhasmeanttheefforttoprotectapopulationandterritoryagainstorganizedforcewhileadvancingstateintereststhroughcompeti-tivebehavior.Thestatehasbeentheprevailingentityforguaranteeingsecurity,andstate-centeredtheorieshavedominateddiscussionsofinternationalrelations,especiallysinceWorldWarII.Withinthisstate-centeredanalysis,threatstypicallyhavebeenperceivedasmilitarychallengesandhavetraditionallybeencounteredwitharmedforce.Thisnarrowfocusonmilitarythreatsandresponses,or“highpolitics,”hasmeantthatotherfactorssuchasinternationaleconomictransactionsandtheenvironment,or“lowpolitics,”havebeenconsideredsecondaryissuesforthesecurityof states.Thisapproachwaschallengedwiththeonsetoftheoilcrisesofthe1970s,whichdramaticallyillustratedtherelevanceofeconomicandresourcescarcityissuesforthesecurityofstates.Twodecadeslater,thecollapseoftheSovietUnionwouldfurtherpromptareconsiderationoftraditionalconceptionsofsecurity.WithouttheunifyingthreatoftheSovietUnion,Westernpowershavefocusedmoreontradeandeconomiccompetitiveness.ThisNorth-Northcompetitionhastakenon

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