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Woodwork Joints

Woodwork Joints



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Published by abdul sukur kamsir

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Published by: abdul sukur kamsir on Jan 16, 2009
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Carcase construction
Geoff's Woodwork 
for Students of Woodwork
Woodwork Joints
For setting out joints see the paper 'Basic Setting Out 1'hereand follow the articles through. When you have cutdown the shoulders of a tenon properly, removed the waste of a halving and chopped out a mortise all these skills arerepeated for most of the other types of joints. Remember to cut the shoulder lines with a sharp knife and 'vee' itpartially to get a good joint. A tight joint is not needed, just fitted well. If it is too tight the glue will be forced out andany minor imperfection will throw the frame out and into 'winding'.
There are numerous 'rules' for beginners and improvers to learn and at times it seems like there are too many. Theyare not my rules. The 'rules' however, are the techniques handed down as the most effective way of doing things.They reduce your error and allow you to work more efficiently and above all - safely. Later when you have learnt thetechniques and you work effectively you may find 'other' ways. But you will understand and know the penalties whenthings do not quite go as they should and why!An important set of rules is the order of work 
. On many occasions if you cut a shoulder for instance beforeyou have worked the groove or rebate you may find it difficult or tricky to use the plane or router, etc. on the reducedlength. These rules make it easier and reduces error.How to actually cut the joints is well covered in the
These are excellent for getting the basictechniques. If you read, understand and practise these techniques successfully you are 70% a woodworker. You thenneed to know about cabinet construction and lots of practise and experience to become proficient.
 I would like to add  just one tip ~ when sawing to line or shoulder it should be well defined with a sharp H2 pencil, or gauged or in the caseof shoulders, pre-cut with a sharp knife AND then saw as close to the line, on the waste side of the line, as possible.
Your aim actually is to try and cut the line in half ! It is a mistake to leave a little on to trim to the line later. This iswasteful and the longer you rely on it you will never cut a straight or accurate line or shoulder. Remember if you areusing powered saws, the
could be as thick as 4 to 5 mm's thick.
The basic joints:
http://www.geoffswoodwork.co.uk/joints.htm (1 of 5)7/27/2004 7:42:55 AM
Carcase construction
To see detailed isometric drawings of how the mortise and tenon joints are constructed see the three different frame jointshere.
Through haunched Mortise & Tenon
. The haunch is to prevent the joint becoming 'bridled' and by reducing thewidth to 2/3 rds it reduces the tendency of the tenon cupping and thus putting the frame in 'winding'.
Secret haunched Mortise and Tenon.
The secret haunch is achieved by cutting it at 45 degrees. This is needed forinstance when the top of the frame is exposed such as a cane seat on a stool, etc.c.
Secret Haunched Stub Mortise and Tenon
. The Stub hides the end grain of the tenon coming through. The M &T mid way to receive a rail or runner, etc. would not need to be haunched. However, it is prudent in all cabinet work tohave a small shoulder top and bottom of say 2 to 3 mm to hide any 'blemishes' that may be exposed on cutting themortise.d.
Corner rail to leg.
The M & T is 'bare-faced' to allow the cheek of the rail to line up with the outside of the leg orstile. The meeting tenons are mitred to gain the maximum length. Note that it is also 'haunched' to prevent the joint
http://www.geoffswoodwork.co.uk/joints.htm (2 of 5)7/27/2004 7:42:55 AM
Carcase construction
becoming 'bridled'. ( A lower rail would not need the haunch - see above)e.
Corner or 'L' bridle
for a carcase frame.f.
Corner or 'L' dovetailed bridle,
similar to above but stronger. Some chair seat are done like this.g.
'T' Bridle
, Stile to mid-rail. A mid leg is often jointed like this on a half round table.h.
Corner halved or 'L' joint.
With countersunk screws to reinforce it. For Carcassing quality work, etc.i.
'T' Halved Joint
- For Carcassing. The 'X' or cross rail halving is similar where two rails cross but both rails continue. j.
Mitred corner joint
- hides end grain, suitable for table top mouldings and picture frames, etc.k.
Halved corner Mitre Joint.
As above but stronger. Use where the end grain may be hidden.
http://www.geoffswoodwork.co.uk/joints.htm (3 of 5)7/27/2004 7:42:55 AM

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