Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
22Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Malaria

Malaria

Ratings:

4.0

(1)
|Views: 1,164|Likes:
Published by sarguss14

More info:

Published by: sarguss14 on Jan 16, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

02/01/2013

pdf

text

original

 
Subject: FCM III Topic: MALARIALecturer: DR. FLORESShifting /Date: 2
nd
Shifting/ Sept. 12, 2008 Trans group: we-love-brother’s-sandwich group
Impact Worldwide
Malaria causes about 350-500 million infections inhumans
Approximately 1.3-3 million deaths annually - thisrepresents at least one death every 30 seconds.
Occur in children under the age of 5 years, in vastmajority of cases and pregnant women are alsovulnerable.
Death rate is expected to double in the next twentyyears.
Precise statistics are unknown because many casesoccur in rural areas where people do not have accessto hospitals andlor the means to afford health care.
Consequently, many cases are undocumented.
Malaria is the most common and most persistentmosquito-borne infection in the Philippines althoughcases and deaths have gone down.
Endemic areas are usually rural, hilly or mountainous,and hard to reach.
High-risk groups consist of upland subsistence
farmers, forest-related workers,
indigenous peoples and
settlers in frontier areas, and
Migrant agricultural workers.
Disease transmission
perennial
generally higher during the rainy season than the dry
season
Incidence rate of malaria
Decreased from 101 cases per 100,000 population in 1996 to67 per 100,000 in 2000, a 34 percent reduction within fouryears
Malaria is
more common in rural areas than in cities;
this is in contrast to dengue fever where
urban areas present the greater risk.
For example, the
cities
of the Philippines, Thailand andSriLanka are essentially malaria-free, but the disease ispresentin many
rural regions.
By contrast, in West Africa, Ghana and Nigeria havemalaria
throughout the entire country,
though the risk is
lower in thelarger cities.
OVERVIEW OF MALARIA
Malaria is a disease caused by one or more species of theprotozoan parasites called
 plasmodium.
Mosquito: the malaria vector The natural vector is the female mosquito that is partof thebiological environment.
Usual transmission is through the infective bite of thisfemaleanopheles mosquito and rarely through bloodtransfusion,placenta and sharing of contaminated needles.
 There are several types of mosquitoes but only certainspecies that belong to the Genus Anopheles transmitmalarial parasites.
Must be recognized promptly in order to treat thepatient intime and to prevent further spread of infection in thecommunity
Should be considered a potential medical emergencyandshould be treated accordingly
Delay in diagnosis and treatment IS a leading cause of deathin malaria patients in the United States.
Can be suspected based on the patient's symptomsand thephysical findings at examination.
However, for a definitive diagnosis to be made,laboratorytests must demonstrate the malaria parasites or theircomponents.
Diagnosis of malaria can be difficult.
Where malaria is not endemic any more (such as theUnitedStates), health care providers are not familiar with thedisease
Clinicians seeing a malaria patient may forget toconsidermalaria among the potential diagnoses .and not ordertheneeded diagnostic tests.
Laboratorians may lack experience with malaria andfail todetect parasites when examining blood smears underthemicroscope.
Malaria transmission in some areas is so mtense that alargeproportion of the population is infected but not made illby theparasites.
Such carriers have developed just enough immunity toprotect them from malarial illness but not frommalarialinfection.
In that situation, finding malaria parasites in an illpersondoes not necessarily mean that the illness is caused bytheparasites.
SIGNIFICANT BIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF MALARIAVECTORS IN THE PHILIPPINES:
 TO CONTROL THE LARVAE
Changing the environmental condition can make it
MARY YVETTE ALLAIN TINA RALPH SHERYL BART HEINRICH PIPOY KC JAM CECILLE DENESSE VINCE HOOPS CES XTIAN LAINEY RIZ KIX EZRA GOLDIE BUFF MONA AM MAAN ADI KCPENG KARLA ALPHE AARON KYTH ANNE EISA KRING CANDY ISAY MARCO JOSHUA FARS RAIN JASSIE MIKA SHAR ERIKA MACKY VIKI JOAN PREI KATE BAM AMS HANNAH MEMAY PAURACHE ESTHER JOEL GLENN TONI
 
 Subject: FCM III Topic: MALARIA
Page 2 of 8unsuitable for larval development & can destroy theaquaticstages
Predators such as fishes eat the mosquito larvae. TO CONTROL THE ADULT MOSQUITOES
Spraying insecticides on the walls and other surfaceswhere the mosquitoes rest before and after biting cancontrol the adults
Insecticide treated mosqUito nets are also used tocontrolthe adult population.
Climactic conditions
-
Prolonged dry season reduces the availabilityof surface water for breeding othermosquitoes leads to reduction of malarialtransmission.- Even distribution of rainfall, temperaturebetween 20-30C and humidity >60 % on theother hand are very favorable to malarialtransmission.
-
In general, transmission is higher during rainyseason than during dry season.
Socioeconomicand behavioral factors that favor theincrease of malaria transmission:
Population movement related to socioeconomicactivities(logging, mining "kaingin" farming)
sociopolitical factors (peace and order problems)
Poor housing condition readily exposes the occupationtomosquito bites
Poor compliance to control measures includingtreatment
Poor economy and inadequate political will to sustainthecontrol program
Lack of poor difficult roads in endemic areas.
Prevalence and Incidence of Infection
 The Prevalence of a condition is the percentage of population which was affected at a single point in time.
 The prevalence of malaria infection is generally usedtocharacterize the level of transmission.
Prevalence of malaria infection is measured in 3 mainways:
o
Parasite rate: through microscopy of bloodfilms
o
Spleen rate: spleen palpation
o
Seroprevalence rate: serologic methods
 The methods mentioned previously can be used toquantifythe intensity of transmission e.g. force of infection (%)based on the parasite rate or seroprevalence.Spleen Rate (%)Parasite Rate (%)Hypoendemic0-100-10Mesoendemic11-5011-50Hyoerendemic>75 (low in adult)51-75Holoendemic>75 (low in adult)>75
NATIONAL SITUATION
Malaria is the most common and most persistentmosquitoborneinfection in the Philippines althoughcases and deaths have gone down.
Endemic areas are usually~ rural, hilly ormountainous, andhard to reach.
MALARiA CONTROL in the Philippines in the 1990s hadSignificantly reduced cases by 60% (from 89,047 in1990 to34,787 in 2001)
Still malaria remains endemic in 65 of the 78provinces, 760of the 1,600 municipalities and 9, 345 of the 42, 979barangays nationwide.
At risk of malaria nationwide are 11 million Filipinosmainlyliving in the remote hard to reach areas.
Endemicity is now generally moderate to low, Withpockets of high endemicity, persisting along theprovincial/regional borders in frontier areas, placespopulated by indigenous cultural groups and areaswith socio-political conflicts.
It constitutes to be a major impediment to human andeconomic development in areas where it persists
It still costs the economy over 100 million pesos tosustaincontrol efforts
Geographical distribution of Malaria Philippines
Category A Provinces- 25 Provinces- No significant changes in the last 10 yrs- More than 1000 cases/ year- or situation worsened in the last 5 yearsCategory B Provinces- 22 Provinces- 100 to 1000
casesl
year- Situation has improved in the last 5 yrsCategory C Provinces- 18 Provinces- less than 100 cases
I
year- Significant reduction in the last 5 yrsCategory D Provinces- Provinces that are already malaria-free (no moreindigenous cases for at least 3 years- Some are potentially malarious due to the presence of thevectorCategory A Provinces-Apayao-Quezon-Misamis Oriental-Kalinga-Zamboanga del-Davao del sur-Ifugao Sur-Davao del Norte-Mt. Provihce-Bukidnon-Compostela-lsabela-Quirino Valley-Cagayan-Zambales-Saranggani-MindoroOccidental-Palawan-Agusan del SurOccidental-Basilan-Agusan del Norte-Sulu-Tawi tawi-Surigao del SurCategory A-fn 25 provinces-90% of cases nationwide-348 of the 760 endemic municipalities-4,407 of the 9, 345 barangays (distncts)
 
 Subject: FCM III Topic: MALARIA
Page 3 of 8-Endemic population of 6,205,08-50-60% of endemic areas categorized under the lowest
income group nationally-Indigenous peoples (IPs) constitutes 90% of theendemic
populationCategory DProvinces that are already malaria free (no more indigenouscases for at least 3 yrsCateqorv D ProvincesBoholSiquojorCapizLeyte NorteBiliranCamiguinCatanduanesIloiloGuimarasLeyteAklanCebuSuluNorthern Samar
Malaria Control Program
Program Thrust
Vision: Malaria Frep- Philippines by the year 2020
Mission: To empower the health workers, thepopulation atrisk and all other concerned to eliminate malaria in thePhilippines
Goal: Malaria is eliminated as apublic health problemin endemic provinces
National Health Objectives for 2004
Health Status Objectives-To reduce malaria mortality to 20% annually-To reduce mortality by 10% annually-To prevent the recurrence of transmission in malaria freeprovincesRisk Reduction Objectives-Increase household utilization of mosquito nets-Increase compliance rate on malaria treatment-Increase coverage of streams that serve as' breeding sitesseeded with larvivorous fish-Increase coverage of streams that serve as breeding siteclearedStrategies-Provision of early diagnosis and prompt treatment-Planning and implementation of selective or prevention of malaria epidemics-Strengthening local capabilities in basic and applied researchto promote assessment of the country's malaria situation
LIFE CYCLE
 The cycle begins with the introduction of the parasites(sporozoite stage) in the bloodstream of man throughthe biteof infective female Anopheles mosquito.
W/in
30 mins the sporozoites will invade the liver cells.
 There will undergo development in the liver, theinfectedperson remains asymptomatic and the parasitescannot beseen yet in the blood.
After at least 6 days the parasites (merozoite stage)arereleased from the liver cells to the bloodstream andinvade theblood cells. Further development and multiplication of theparasites occurs in the RBC.
Ultimately the infected RBCs are destroyed. theparasitesare released and invade other RBCs
 This time there may be prodromal symptoms ( Lowgradefever, nausea, vomiting, headache.)
 The development cycle in the RBCs is repeated every36 to48 hrs for P. falcifarum, every 48 hrs for P vivax and P.ovate;and every 72 hours for P. malaria.
 The periodic destruction and subsequent invasion of theRBCs by the parasites cause periodic occurrence of signs andsymptoms of malaria typically the paroxysms of chills,fever,and sweating.
After 2 to 3 cycles in the red blood cells, somemerozoites .give rise to sexual forms (gametocytes).
During the blood feeding of the mosquito, the differentstages of the parasites are ingested All except thegametocytes are destroyed.
A series of development occurs until the sporozoitesaredeveloped and congregate in the salivary glands readyfortransmission during biting.
Usually the developmental cycle in the mosquito takesabout 14 days. In other words the parasites can onlybetransmitted to another person after 14 days from theday theparasite (gametocyte) were ingested by the mosquito.
ln cases of P.vivax and P.ovale, some sporozoitesdevelopinto the dormant stage called hypn020ites in the liver.
 The activation of this dormant stage and itssubsequentdevelopment in the liver and in the RBC causesrelapse.
In some areas, malaria transmission is so intense thatalarge proportion of the population is infected but notmade illby the parasites.
Such carriers have developed just enough immunity toprotect them from malarial illness but not frommalarialinfection.

Activity (22)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Cristina Cebanu liked this
akhmad113 liked this
Saad Motawea liked this
Mhaine Mohr liked this
Mhaine Mohr liked this
inacica liked this
popipipo liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->