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Lecture 7 - Sequence ImpedanceRatings:

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09/08/2013

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Sequence Impedance

In order to study the system in the unbalanced condition using symmetricalcomponents the component sequence impedances need to be defined. Sequenceimpedances enable manufactures to specify the component impedances under variousunbalanced conditions through just three quantities and is therefore widely used.

Synchronous machines

Positive sequence impedance is time dependent with three identified parametersdepending on the period of the response studied; Steady state, transient, subtransient.The three values are due to the time constant for the magnetic field to penetrate theiron of the rotor and stator.Negative sequence impedance is due to rotating currents at twice the power frequencyso are close to the subtransient positive sequence impedance.Zero sequence impedance depends on the impedance of the connection of the starpoint of the stator windings to earth.

Lines and cables

To a good approximation it can be assumed that overhead lines and cables are fullytransposed. The self and mutual impedances will the be the same for each phase andthe positive and negative sequence impedances will be identical. The zero sequenceis due to identical current in the phases and a return in the ground therefore is effectedby weather and geography of the transmission line. A typical equivalent circuitrepresentation of a three phase transmission line is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Equivalent circuit for a full transposed transmission line

Zs Zs Zs Zm Zm Zm

I

a

I

b

I

c

V

aL

V

bL

V

cL

V

cS

V

bs

V

aS

For a fully transposed transmission line as depicted in figure 1. the voltage andcurrents are then related by:

cLbLaLcbasmmmsmmmscS bS aS

Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z

VVVIIIVVV

(1)Using the transformation to symmetrical components equation (1) can be written as

L L LsmmmsmmmscS S

hhhhhhhh Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z hhhh

210222102221022

111111111111111

VVVIIIVVV

this then gives

L L LsmmmsmmmscS S

hhhh Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z hhhh

2102102222210

111111111131

VVVIIIVVV

which reduces to

0 0 01 1 12 2 2

2 0 00 00 0

S s m LS s m Lc s m L

Z Z Z Z Z Z

V I VV I VV I V

(2)Thus by transforming to symmetrical components we have reduced the threesimultaneous equations into 3 independent equations for each sequence component.The sequence impedances are:

ms

Z Z Z

2

0

ms

Z Z Z Z

21

Transformers

For power system studies we often neglect the magnetising impedance and thepositive and negative sequence impedances are given by the leakage inductance. Agood approximation of the leakage inductance for most power system transformers is5% of the impedance which provides rated power. The zero sequence impedancedepends on winding arrangement of the transformer.

For Kirchhoff’s current law to be

satisfied Zero sequence current can only flow around a delta connected three phasewinding and not enter or leave it. Also, for a Y or star connected winding the neutralpoint must be earthed for zero sequence currents to flow. For a transformer theprimary and secondary windings are also closely coupled, therefore, zero sequencecurrents can only flow in a winding if zero sequence currents can flow in the othercoupled winding. This is depicted in Figure 2.

a)b)c)

Figure 2. Three winding arrangements and the possible zerosequence current flow. a) Delta connected winding, b) Starconnected winding with unearthed neutral, c) Star connectedwinding with an earthed neutral.

Circulating

I

0

indelta winding

External

I

0

cannot enter delta

windings

Kirchhoff’s current law can not

be satisfied for I

0

at the deltawinding terminalsExternal

I

0

can notenter star connected

windings because

Kirchhoff’s current

law can not besatisfied at theneutral point

External

I

0

can enteran earthed starconnected

windings

because Kirchhoff’s

current law can besatisfied at the neutralpoint

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