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APEH, The French Revolution and Napoleon

APEH, The French Revolution and Napoleon

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Published by: Julie on Jan 16, 2009
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07/31/2012

 
guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com AP European HistoryThe French Revolution and NapoleonAbbé SieyesAbbé SieyesAbbé SieyesAbbé SieyesWrote the pamphlet “What is the Third Estate?” in 1789, presented the ideas of the FrenchRevolution in a format that was understandable to commoners.Instigator of the Brumaire Coup – chose to support Napoleon because he thought Napoleoncould be controlled. Member of the Directory.Alexander IAlexander IAlexander IAlexander IGrandson of Catherine the Great, he was educated to become an enlightened despot.After the Treaty of Tilsit, in which Alexander I agrees to the Continental System (tradeembargo with Britain), Alexander withdraws from alliance with the French in 1810. OnceAlexander did so, Napoleon sent a Grand Army of 700,000 men, leading them into Russia in1812. Napoleon’s army was defeated by the Russian winter, leaving only a small portion left todefend the rest of Napoleon’s empire.The anti-Napoleon forces, led by Russia, invaded Europe and drove Napoleon back to France.At the Congress of Vienna, Alexander represented his country and wanted Poland,constitutional governments in Europe, and an international system of collective security.AusterlitzAusterlitzAusterlitzAusterlitzNapoleon’s decisive victory at Austerlitz against Austrian and Russian forces at Austerlitz in1805 was perhaps one of his greatest victories. It effectively ended the War of the ThirdCoalition.Caused Austrian withdrawal from Italy and left Napoleon as king of Italy.Prussia was provoked into war with France, but Napoleon defeated the Prussian forces at theBattle of Jena.Battle of AbBattle of AbBattle of AbBattle of Abuuuukir (Nile)kir (Nile)kir (Nile)kir (Nile)Prior to becoming emperor, Napoleon was a skilled military general. He was sent to attackBritish interests through the eastern Mediterranean by capturing Egypt from the OttomanEmpire. The British fleet could then be driven out of the Mediterranean and cutcommunications between Great Britain and India.While Napoleon successfully defeated the Egyptian forces, Admiral Horatio Nelson destroyedthe French fleet at Abukir. Cut off from France, the French army could not get home.Napoleon left his army and sailed back to France, where he would tell France of the greatvictories he had in Egypt.Battle of the PyramidsBattle of the PyramidsBattle of the PyramidsBattle of the PyramidsThis battle took place directly before the Battle of Abukir and was the one mentioned above inwhich Napoleon defeated the local Egyptian forces.
 
guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com AP European HistoryThe French Revolution and NapoleonBeBeBeBerrrrlin/Mlin/Mlin/Mlin/Miiiilanlanlanlan DecreesDecreesDecreesDecreesIn an effort to make his Continental System effective, Napoleon created the Berlin and Milandecrees, in which no English ships or English goods could come onto the Continent. Allcountries allied with France and even neutral countries were not allowed to trade withEngland.Instead of harming England’s economy, since England had routes to Asia, Napoleon devastatedthe economies of the European countries located on the Continent. Asian goods becamescarce, with their value increasing. This promoted smuggling and the formation of a blackmarket.These decrees later caused Alexander of Russia to break with Napoleon.BorBorBorBoroooodinodinodinodinoOutside the gates of Moscow, since the Russian soldiers needed time to burn the rest of Moscow down, the main Russian force battled Napoleon’s Grand Army.Although the Russian soldiers were not especially skilled, there were great numbers of them. Itis said that Napoleon’s artillery-men slipped and drowned in the blood of the Russian soldiers,because there was so many.Napoleon won the battle, losing 30,000 men, while the Russians lost 50,000 and retreatedfurther into Russia. However, they left behind nothing beneficial to Napoleon.Civil ConCivil ConCivil ConCivil Constitution of the Clergystitution of the Clergystitution of the Clergystitution of the ClergySet up a French national church.Attacks the Catholic Church’s power by stating that church officials are to be elected, ratherthan appointed by the ChurchChurch lands were confiscated; all clergy received salaries from the state.ClichyClichyClichyClichyThe political party that allied with the monarchy – royalists.ComteComteComteComteAugustus Comte coined the term “positivism,” which emphasizes order and progress. TheFrench people were eager to support Napoleon because they wanted “positivism” after thechaos of the Terror and the Directory.Concordat of 1801Concordat of 1801Concordat of 1801Concordat of 1801Napoleon’s agreement with Pope Pius VII that ended the autonomy of the Gallican Church.The pope received the right to depose French bishops and gained control over the clergy, butanyone who owned lands formerly owned by the church were able to keep them.
 
guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com AP European HistoryThe French Revolution and NapoleonThe government was responsible for paying the salaries of the Catholic clergy members as wellas Protestant ministers.By signing the concordat, the pope recognized the Republic.Confederation of the RhineConfederation of the RhineConfederation of the RhineConfederation of the RhineFrom the fragmented Germanic states that were once the Holy Roman Empire, Napoleoncreated a Germanic federation called the Confederation of the Rhine, of which he made himself the “protector.”Constitution of Year IIIConstitution of Year IIIConstitution of Year IIIConstitution of Year IIIAlso known as the Constitution of 1795, this document provided the political structure of France under the Directory.While almost all adult males were given the vote, they voted for “electors.” These electorschose important department officials and members of the national Legislative Assembly, whichwas divided into two chambers.The lower chamber was the Council of 500, where one had to own land. The Council of Eldersconsisted of land-owning men over the age of 40 – they chose five among themselves to bethe 5 Directors.Constitution of Year VIIConstitution of Year VIIConstitution of Year VIIConstitution of Year VIIIIIIIssued by Napoleon, this Constitution offered universal male suffrage, a complicated system of checks and balances, and a Council of State. However, it ultimately established Napoleon asthe First Consul.Established the Consulate, effectively ending the revolution in France.ConsulateConsulateConsulateConsulateNapoleon’s government that met the needs of most of the middle class and peasants – therewere no more hereditary privileges and oppressive feudal privileges had also been abolished.Worked to bring positivism.Continental SystemContinental SystemContinental SystemContinental SystemNapoleon’s plan to cut off all British trade with the European continent so as to cripple Britishcommercial and financial power. He hoped to drive Britain from the war in this way.While the British economy survived, the European economies were hurt badly. Napoleon’sfavoring of France through tariff policies angered foreign merchants and promoted smuggling.Council of 500Council of 500Council of 500Council of 500(See Constitution of Year III)

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