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Tsql Material

Tsql Material

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Published by Vadde Suresh

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Published by: Vadde Suresh on Sep 07, 2012
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05/11/2014

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KESHTO TECHNOLOGIES
 
Data
: Data is the most important component in any work that we do; Data meanscollection of information or collection of raw facts.Ex: 1. Text files2. Facts3. Figures (photos)4. Audios5. Videos etc...Database: collection of related data. 
DBMS :( Database Management System)
Data Base Management System is the management system or maintenancesystem on databases.
(Or)
 It is a suit of software program for creating, maintaining & manipulating the data indatabase.
(Or)
It allows the users to insert the data, to retrieve the data, to modify the data and todelete the data.Properties:1. Create2. Insert3. Update4. Delete5. Select (query)6. Low level security etc...Ex: FoxPro, ims (information management system)
 The first databases of kind existed in the form of files.
A file is nothing but collection of records.
A Record is nothing but collection of information or data.
But the file system was not very efficient .it was crippled by slow datasearch speed. It includes the following Drawbacks.1.Security2.Data Redundancy3.Data Integrity4.Concurrency Control5.Slow in Process6. File system: in a dbms database, data must be stored in the form of files only
Note:
basic property of file system is independent and individual, means each andevery file is unique AND relation is not possible between data files7. Low level security, No Login name No Password.
Phone: 9951338095Email: keshtotechnologies@gmail.com
1
 
KESHTO TECHNOLOGIES
RDBMS (Relational Database Management System):
Data must be stored in the form of tables only
Relation between Tables is possible
Table
: It is collection of columns and rows,
X
axis directions are rows and
 Y 
axisdirections are columns
Relation
: Creating internal dependencies between Database Tables
Ex of RDBMS:
1. Sqlserver2. Oracle3. Db2 (Database 2000, IBM)4. Mysql (open source)5. ms-access6. Postgresql (open source)7. Sybase8. Tera dataEtc.....
Terminology:
1. Table -- Entity2. Column (field) -- Attribute3. Row (record) -- Tupple4. Duplicate data (Repeated data) – Data Redundancy
Metadata
: Data about data, it describes characteristics of dataEx: Description of a tableSyn: sp_help <TN>Ex: sp_help EMPNote: <TN> stands for Table name
Data models:
1. Hierarchy data model2. Network data model3. Relational data modelNote: Currently all RDBMS Databases following RELATIONAL DATA MODELAdv of Relational Data model: s
Relation
Perfect solution for duplicate data and null values
Normalization
Phone: 9951338095Email: keshtotechnologies@gmail.com
2
 
KESHTO TECHNOLOGIES
Normalization
: It is a process of eliminating duplicate data from the database.
EF CODD RULES:Foundation Rule
A relational database management system must manage its stored data using only itsrelational capabilities.
Information Rule
All information in the database should be represented in one and only one way - asvalues in a table.
Guaranteed Access Rule
Each and every datum (atomic value) is guaranteed to be logically accessible byresorting to a combination of table name, primary key value and column name.
Systematic Treatment of Null Values
Null values (distinct from empty character string or a string of blank characters anddistinct from zero or any other number) are supported in the fully relational DBMS forrepresenting missing information in a systematic way, independent of data type.
Dynamic On-line Catalog Based on the Relational Model
 The database description is represented at the logical level in the same way asordinary data, so authorized users can apply the same relational language to itsinterrogation as they apply to regular data.
Comprehensive Data Sublanguage Rule
A relational system may support several languages and various modes of terminal use.However, there must be at least one language whose statements are expressible, persome well-defined syntax, as character strings and whose ability to support all of thefollowing is comprehensible:a.data definitionb.view definitionc.data manipulation (interactive and by program)d.integrity constraintse.authorizationf.transaction boundaries (begin, commit, and rollback).
View Updating Rule
All views that are theoretically updateable are also updateable by the system.
High-level Insert, Update, and Delete
 The capability of handling a base relation or a derived relation as a single operandapplies nor only to the retrieval of data but also to the insertion, update, and deletionof data.
Physical Data Independence
Application programs and terminal activities remain logically unimpaired whenever anychanges are made in either storage representation or access methods.
Logical Data Independence
Application programs and terminal activities remain logically unimpaired wheninformation preserving changes of any kind that theoretically permit unimpairment aremade to the base tables.
Phone: 9951338095Email: keshtotechnologies@gmail.com
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