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Published by: benwkg on Sep 07, 2012
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“Earthing” may be described as a system of electrical connections to the general massof earth.The characteristic primarily determining the effectiveness of an earth electrode is theresistance, which it provides between the earthing system and the general mass of earth.
 The earthing of an electrical installation has two purposes:1.To provide protection for persons or animals against the danger of electric shock.2.To maintain the proper function of the electricalsystem.
Soil Resistivity (specific resistance of the soil) is usuallymeasured in Ohm meters, one Ohm meter being theresistivity the soil has when it has a resistance of oneOhm between the opposite faces of a cube of soil having one meter sides. The other unit commonly used is the Ohm centimeter; to convert Ohmmeters to Ohm centimeters, multiply by 100.Soil resistivity varies greatly from one location to another.For example, soil around the banks of a river has aresistivity in the order o f1.5 Ohm meters. In the otherextreme, dry sand in elevated areas can have values ashigh as 10,000 Ohm meters.
 The resistance of the earth path is determined, (1) by the resistivity of thesoil surrounding the earth rod, (2) by its contact resistance between theearth rod and the surrounding soil and, (3) by the resistance of the earth rodand connecting conductors.When an electrical current passes into the soil from a buried earth rod, itpasses from a low resistance metal into an immediate area of highresistance soil. Reference to Figures 1 & 2 depicts what happens when acurrent flows from an earth rod into the surrounding earth. The areas of 
resistance can be described as being that of a number of sheaths of everincreasing diameters. The current path passes into the first sheathimmediately adjacent to the earth rod and then into the second sheath whichis of a larger cross-section with a greater area for current flow and, therefore,of lower resistance than the first sheath, and so on into a succession of sheaths or shells of ever increasing area and, because of this, of everdecreasing resistance.Eventually at a distance of three of four meters, the area of currentdissipation becomes so large, and the current density so small, theresistance at this point is negligible.Measurements show that 90% of the total resistance around an earth rod iswithin a radius of three meters.However, it is this resistance at the interface where the current leaves theearth rod and flows into the main body of the earth that is important andexplains why soil resistivity tests are very necessary in order to securelowest overall resistance.
 The factors chiefly affecting soil resistivities are:
Type of Soil
 The soil composition can be: clay, gravel, loam, rock, sand, shale, silt,stones, etc. In many locations, soil can be quite homogenous, while otherlocations may be mixtures of these soil types in varying proportions. Veryoften, the soil composition is in layers or strata, and it is the resistance of thevarying strata, especially at sub-soil level and lower where the moisturecontent is not subject to drying out, that is important in securing a goodelectrical earth.Refer Table 1 for typical soil resistivity values.
Obviously, arid and good rainfall climates are at opposite extremes forconditions of soil resistivity.
Seasonal Conditions
 The effects of heat, moisture, drought and frost can introduce widevariations in “normal” soil resistivity. Soil resistivity usually decreases withdepth, and an increase of only a few percent of moisture content in anormally dry soil will markedly decrease soil resistivity. Conversely, soiltemperatures below freezing greatly increase soil resistivity, requiring earthrods to be driven to even greater depths. See Table 2 for variations of soilresistivity with moisture content, and Table 3 for variations of soil resistivitywith temperature.
Other Factors
Other soil properties conducive to low resistivity are chemical composition,soil ionization, homogeneous grain size and even grain distribution - all of 
which have much to do with retention of soil moisture, as well as providinggood conditions for a closely packed soil in good contact with the earth rod.In view of all the above factors, there is a large variation of soil resistivitybetween different soil types and moisture contents.Every earth is an individual and the only way to know that an earthinginstallation meets code requirements isto carry out proper resistancemeasurements on site. There are a variety of test instrumentsavailable; however, they can be generallycategorized as three terminals of four-terminal test instruments.
Figure 3 illustrates the test setup formeasuring the resistance in Ohms between the installed earth rod and thegeneral mass of earth. Refer to the instrument manufacturer’s manual onhow to carry out the test. As a general rule, the distance between the earthrod under test and the current probe “C” is not less than 15 meters.
Earth rods are installed by one of two methods. More often than not, the rodcan be driven into the ground by either a hand held hammer or mechanicallyoperated hammer. However,
where driving is difficult or progress non-existent, the only option is to drill a hole to take the earth rod.
Where holes are drilled, the gap between the earth rod and wall of the drilledhole is commonly filled with a water expanding compound. Such a compoundis EARTHRITE. This is a mixture of Bentonite and Gypsum with a smallamount of Sodium Sulphate to reduce the resistivity of the backfill.
Earth rods up to 3m long can be driven satisfactorily inone length. There are a variety of methods fordriving earth rods in to the ground from the simplehand held hammer to power operated mobile rigs. The nature of the soil and terrain, the length of driveneeded to secure minimum resistance, and thenumber of rods to be driven dictates their use. The driving methods are:
The Hand Held Hammer
is an effective methodfor most domestic installations encountered insuburban lots. The earth rod should be driven lightly

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