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Table Of Contents

Executive Summary
5.1 Introduction
5.1.1 Source of energy
5.1.2 History of hydropower development
5.2 Resource potential
5.2.1 Global Technical Potential
5.2.2 Possible impact of climate change on resource potential Projected changes in precipitation and runoff Projected impacts on hydropower generation
5.3 Techno logy and applications
5.3.1 Classification by head and size
5.3.2 Classification by facility type Run-of-River Storage Hydropower Pumped storage In-stream technology using existing facilities
5.3.3 Status and current trends in technology development Efficiency
5.4.1 Existing generation
5.4.2 The hydropower industry
5.4.3 Impact of policies12 International carbon markets Project financing Administrative and licensing process Classification by size
5.5 Integration into broader energy systems
5.5.1 Grid-independent applications
5.5.2 Rural electrification
5.5.3 Power system services provided by hydropower
5.5.4 Hydropower support of other generation including renewable energy
5.5.5 Reliability and interconnection needs for hydropower
5.6 En vironmental and social impacts19
5.6.1 Typical impacts and possible mitigation measures Hydrological regimes Reservoir creation Water quality Sedimentation Biological diversity Barriers for fish migration and navigation Involuntary population displacement Affected people and vulnerable groups Public health Cultural heritage Sharing development benefits
5.6.2 Guidelines and regulations
5.6.3 Lifecycle assessment of environmental impacts Current lifecycle estimates of greenhouse gas emissions Quantification of gross and net emissions from reservoirs
5.7 Prospects for technology improvement and innovation25
5.7.1 Variable-speed technology
5.7.2 Matrix technology
5.7.3 Fish-friendly turbines
5.7.4 Hydrokinetic turbines
5.7.5 New materials
5.7.6 Tunnelling technology
5.7.7 Dam technology
5.7.8 Optimization of operation
5.8.1 Investment cost of hydropower projects and factors that affect it
5.8 Cost trends28
5.8.2 Other costs occurring during the lifetime of hydropower projects
5.8.3 Performance parameters affecting the levelized cost of hydropower
5.8.4 Past and future cost trends for hydropower projects
5.8.5 Cost allocation for other purposes
5.9 Potential deployment30
5.9.1 Near-term forecasts
5.9.2 Long-term deployment in the context of carbon mitigation
5.9.3 Conclusions regarding deployment
5.10 Integration into water management systems
5.10.1 The need for climate-driven water management
5.10.2 Multipurpose use of reservoirs and regulated rivers
5.10.3 Regional cooperation and sustainable watershed management
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Published by James Douglas

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Published by: James Douglas on Sep 07, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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