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Amplification Factors of Beams With General Boundary Conditions Due to a Moving Constant Load

Amplification Factors of Beams With General Boundary Conditions Due to a Moving Constant Load

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  
2007

 J. J. Appl. Sci., 2007: Vol. 9, No. 1, 2007 
1
Amplification Factors of Beams with General BoundaryConditions Due to a Moving Constant Load
Mohammed Abu-Hilal
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Applied Science PrivateUniversity Amman 11931 JORDAN 
Received: 04/01/2006 Accepted: 03/04/2006
Abu-Hilal, Mohammed
2007 AmplificationFactors of Beams with General Boundary ConditionsDue to a Moving Constant Load
 J. J. Appl. Sci
Abstract
: In this paper the amplification factors of an Euler-Bernoulli beam with different boundaryconditions due to a moving constant load arestudied. The boundary conditions considered are:pinned-pinned, fixed-fixed, pinned-fixed, and fixed-free. The effects of the beam damping and thedirection of motion of the moving loads areinvestigated. The obtained amplification factors aregiven in graphical form dependent on a movingspeed parameter. Also, in addition to theamplification factors of the total response of theconsidered beams, the amplification factors of theforced response are separately considered. Thepresent results are compared with published resultswhere applicable.
Keywords
: Amplification factor; Beams; Movingload
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Introduction
Vibration of beams due to moving loads is a field of interest in mechanical,industrial and civil engineering. Vibrations of this kind occur in runways, railways,bridges, beam subjected to pressure waves and piping systems subjected to two-phase flow. The moving loads may be roughly divided into three groups: movingoscillator, moving mass, and moving force. Vibrations of beams due to movingoscillators are studied in [1-5], vibrations of beams due to a moving mass areinvestigated in [6-9], and vibration of beams due to a concentrated constant load isexplored in [1, 10-14].Frýba [1] studied the vibrations of beams due to a moving arbitrary force. Heconsidered the effects of beam damping, boundary conditions, and the speed of themoving load. In his work, the amplification factor of the total deflection for only asimply supported beam is given in graphical form. He found that the maximumamplification factor is associated with speeds
α
= 0.5 to 0.7. Yang et al. [16]investigated the vibration of simply supported beams subjected to the passage of high speed trains. They modeled the train as the composition of two subsystems of wheel loads of constant intervals, with one consisting of all the front wheelassemblies and the other the rear assemblies. In their work, they considered thedynamic impact factor, which is defined as the difference between the maximumdynamic and maximum static responses of deflection of the beam divided by themaximum static deflection. Plots of the impact factor of a simply supported beamagainst a speed parameter are included in their paper. The effect of damping is
 
 Mohammed Abu Hilal
2
considered for one value of damping ratio of 2.5%. Rao [13] studied the dynamicresponse of an undamped Euler-Bernoulli simply supported beam under movingloads. In the work, the normalized maximum dynamic deflection of the beam foreach moving load velocity in the range 1 to 100 m/s is given in graphical form attwo different positions of the beam, namely at
 x
=0.25
 L
and
 x
= 0.5
 L
.Thambiratnam and Zhuge [11] developed a simple procedure based on the finiteelement method for treating the dynamic analysis of beams on an elastic foundationsubjected to moving point loads, where the foundation has been modeled bysprings of variable stiffness. The effect of the speed of the moving load, thefoundation stiffness and the length of the beam on the response of the beam havebeen studied and dynamic amplifications of deflection and stress have beenevaluated. Based on the Lagrangian approach Cheung et al. [3] analyzed thevibration of a multi-span non-uniform bridge subjected to a moving vehicle byusing modified beam vibration functions as the assumed modes.The vehicle is modeled as a two-degree-of-freedom system. Obtained results arepresented in form of dynamic amplification factors and compared with publishedresults where applicable. Savin [17] derived analytic expressions of the dynamicamplification factor and the characteristic response spectrum for weakly dampedbeams with various boundary conditions subjected to point loads moving atconstant speeds. The obtained coefficients are given as functions of the ratio of thespan length to the loads wavelength, and the loads wavelength respectively.Pesterev et al. [18] developed simple tools for finding the maximum deflection of abeam for any given velocity of the travelling force. It is shown that, for givenboundary conditions, there exits a unique response-velocity dependence function.They suggested a technique to determine this function, which is based on theassumption that the maximum beam response can be adequately approximated bymeans of the first mode. Also, the maximum response function is calculatedanalytically for a simply supported beam and constructed numerically for aclamped-clamped beam. Furthermore, they investigated the effect of the highermodes on the maximum response and they constructed the relative error of theone-mode approximation for a simply supported beam. The effect of beamdamping is not considered in their study.In this paper, the total and the forced amplification factors of an Euler-Bernoullibeam with general boundary conditions subject to a moving constant force aretreated. The four classical boundary conditions considered are pinned-pinned,fixed-fixed, pinned-fixed, and fixed-free. The calculated amplification factors aregiven in graphical form dependent on a speed parameter, since analyticalexpressions of the amplification factors seems to be very complicated. In thecalculation, only the first term of a series solution is used and only the response of the beams during the force traverse it is considered. The free vibrations of thebeams which occur after the force leaves it are not considered. The effects of thebeam damping and the direction of motion of the moving force are considered. Theresults obtained are compared with published results where applicable.
Analytical Formulation
The transverse vibration of a uniform elastic Euler-Bernoulli beam subject to aconstant load
P
0
traversing the beam with a constant velocity
c
is governed by thepartial differential equation
 
  
2007

 J. J. Appl. Sci., 2007: Vol. 9, No. 1, 2007 
3
)(
0
ct  xPvvvv EI 
ia
δ= ++µ+
&&&&
(1) where
 EI 
,
µ
,
a
, and
i
are the bending rigidity of the beam, themass per unit length of the beam, the coefficient of external damping of the beam,and the coefficient of internal damping of the beam, respectively.
v
(
 x
,
) denotes thetransverse deflection of the beam at position
 x
and time
and
δ
(.) denotes theDirac delta function. A prime denotes differentiation with respect to position
 x
anda dot denotes differentiation with respect to time
. The external and internaldamping of the beam are assumed to be proportional to the mass and stiffness of the beam respectively, i.e.;
µγ 
1
=
a
rEI 
i
2
γ =
,(2)where
γ 
1
and
γ 
2
are proportionality constants.The solution of equation (1) can be represented in a series form in terms of theeigenfunctions of the beam as
=
=
1nnn
 y x X  x,t v
)()()( (3)where
 y
n
(
) is the
n
th generalized deflection of the beam and
 X 
n
(
 x
) is the
n
theigenfunction of the beam given as
 x x B x A x x X 
nnnnnnnn
κ κ κ κ 
coshsinhcossin)(
+++=
(4)where
κ 
n
,
 A
n
,
 B
n
,
n
are unknown constants and can be determined from theboundary conditions of the beam. Substituting equations (2) and (3) into equation(1) and then multiplying by
 X 
(
 x
), and integrating with respect to x between 0 and
 L
yields
[ ]
∫ ∫ 
δ=µγ ++γ +
=
 Ln Lnnnnnn
 xct  x X P x X  X  y y X  EIX  y y
00101'''' 2
d)(d)()(
&&&&
(5)Considering the orthogonality conditions
ndx X  X 
 Ln
=
∫ 
0
0(6)and the generalized stiffness of the
n
th mode of the beam
∫ 
=
 Lnnn
dx X  EIX 
0''''
(7)as well as the generalized mass of the beam associated with the
n
th mode [15]
∫ 
µ=
 Lnn
dx x X m
02
)((8)yields the differential equation of the
n
th mode of the generalized deflection:)()()(2)(
2
Q y y y
nnnnnnn
=ω+ζω+
&&&
(9)

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