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A New Active Snubber Circuit for PFC Converter

A New Active Snubber Circuit for PFC Converter

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Published by IDES
In this paper, a new active snubber circuit is
developed for PFC converter. This active snubber circuit
provides zero voltage transition (ZVT) turn on and zero
current transition (ZCT) turn off for the main switch
without any extra current or voltage stresses. Auxiliary
switch turns on and off with zero current switching (ZCS)
without voltage stress. Although there is a current stress
on the auxiliary switch, it is decreased by diverting it to
the output side with coupling inductance. The proposed
PFC converter controls output current and voltage in
very wide line and load range. This PFC converter has
simple structure, low cost and ease of control as well. In
this study, a detailed steady state analysis of the new
converter is presented, and the theoretical analysis is
verified exactly by 100 kHz and 300 W prototype. This
prototype has 98% total efficiency and 0.99 power factor
with sinusoidal current shape.
In this paper, a new active snubber circuit is
developed for PFC converter. This active snubber circuit
provides zero voltage transition (ZVT) turn on and zero
current transition (ZCT) turn off for the main switch
without any extra current or voltage stresses. Auxiliary
switch turns on and off with zero current switching (ZCS)
without voltage stress. Although there is a current stress
on the auxiliary switch, it is decreased by diverting it to
the output side with coupling inductance. The proposed
PFC converter controls output current and voltage in
very wide line and load range. This PFC converter has
simple structure, low cost and ease of control as well. In
this study, a detailed steady state analysis of the new
converter is presented, and the theoretical analysis is
verified exactly by 100 kHz and 300 W prototype. This
prototype has 98% total efficiency and 0.99 power factor
with sinusoidal current shape.

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: IDES on Sep 10, 2012
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ACEEE International Journal on Electrical and Power Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 2, July 2010
A New Active Snubber Circuit for PFCConverter 
Burak Akın
Yildiz Technical University/Electrical Engineering Department, Istanbul, TURKEYEmail: bakin@yildiz.edu.tr 
 A
 BSTRACT 
 — 
In this paper, a new active snubber circuit isdeveloped for PFC converter. This active snubber circuitprovides zero voltage transition (ZVT) turn on and zerocurrent transition (ZCT) turn off for the main switchwithout any extra current or voltage stresses. Auxiliaryswitch turns on and off with zero current switching (ZCS)without voltage stress. Although there is a current stresson the auxiliary switch, it is decreased by diverting it tothe output side with coupling inductance. The proposedPFC converter controls output current and voltage invery wide line and load range. This PFC converter hassimple structure, low cost and ease of control as well. Inthis study, a detailed steady state analysis of the newconverter is presented, and the theoretical analysis isverified exactly by 100 kHz and 300 W prototype. Thisprototype has 98% total efficiency and 0.99 power factorwith sinusoidal current shape.
 Index Terms
 — 
Power factor correction (PFC), softswitching (SS), ZCS, ZCT, and ZVT
.
 
I. I
 NTRODUCTION
 In recent years, the power electronic systems anddevices, which are used more frequently, createharmonic currents and pollute the electricity network.Harmonics have a negative effect on the operation of the receiver, who is feeding from the same network.Some sensitive equipments cannot work right. Nowadays, designers provide all the electronic devicesto meet the harmonic content requirements.AC-DC converters have drawbacks of poor power quality in terms of injected current harmonics, whichcause voltage distortion and poor power factor at inputac mains and slow varying ripples at dc output load,low efficiency and large size of ac and dc filters [8].These converters are required to operate with highswitching frequencies due to demands for smallconverter size and high power density. High switchingfrequency operation, however, results in higher switching losses, increased electromagneticinterference (EMI), and reduced converter efficiency[13]. To overcome these drawbacks, low harmonic andhigh power factor converters are used with softswitching techniques. High switching frequency withsoft switching provides high power density, lessvolumes and lowered ratings for the components, highreliability and efficiency [1-3], [7], [10], [12], [13],[16].In principle, the switching power losses consist of the current and voltage overlap loss during theswitching period, power diode’s reverse recovery lossand discharge energy loss of the main switch parasiticcapacitance. Soft switching with Pulse WidthModulation (PWM) control has four main groups aszero voltage switching (ZVS), zero current switching(ZCS), zero voltage transition (ZVT) and zero currentswitching (ZCT). ZVS and ZCS provides a softswitching, but ZVT and ZCT techniques are advanced,so switching power loss can be completely destroyed or is diverted to entry or exit [10].In this study, to eliminate drawbacks of the PFCconverters, the new active snubber circuit is proposed.The proposed circuit provides perfectly ZVT turn onand ZCT turn off together for the main switch, and ZCSturn on and turn off for the auxiliary switch without animportant increase in the cost and complexity of theconverter. There are no additional current or voltagestresses on the main switch. A part of the current of theauxiliary switch is diverted to the output with thecoupling inductance, so better soft switching conditionis provided for the auxiliary switch. Serially added D
2
diode to the auxiliary switch path prevents extra currentstress for the main switch. The aim of this proposedconverter is to achieve high efficiency and highswitching frequency PFC converter with sinusoidalcurrent shape and unity power factor at universal input.The steady state operation of the new converter isanalyzed in detail, and this theoretical analysis isverified exactly by a prototype of a 300 W and 100 kHz boost converter.
II.
OPERATION PRINCIPLES ANDANALYSIS
 Definitions and Assumptions
The circuit scheme of the new PFC converter isgiven in Fig. 1. In this circuit, V
i
is input voltagesource, V
o
is output voltage, L
F
is the main inductor, C
o
is output capacitor, R is output load, S
1
is the mainswitch, S
2
is the auxiliary switch and D
F
is the maindiode. The main switch consists of a main switch S
1
and its body diode D
S1
. L
R1
and L
R2
are upper and lower snubber inductances, C
is snubber capacitor, and D
1
,D
2
, D
3
and D
4
are the auxiliary diodes. L
m
is themagnetization inductance; L
il
and L
ol
are the input andoutput leakage inductances of the transforme45© 2010 ACEEEDOI: 01.ijepe.01.02.01
 
ACEEE International Journal on Electrical and Power Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 2, July 2010respectively. Air gap and leakage inductance ratings areassumed sufficiently big enough. C
S
is the equivalent parasitic capacitor of the main switch, so it is not anadditional component to this converter.For one switching cycle, the following assumptionsare made in order to simplify the steady state analysisof the circuit shown in Fig. 1. put voltage V
o
and input current I
i
are constant for one switching cycle, and all semiconductor devices andresonant circuits are ideal. Furthermore, the reverserecovery times of all diodes are not taken into account.
A.. 
Operation Stages
Twelve stages occur over one switching cycle in thesteady state operation of the proposed converter. Theequivalent circuit schemes of the operation stages aregiven in Fig. 2 (a)-(l) respectively. The key waveformsconcerning the operation modes are shown in Fig. 3.The detailed analysis of every mode of this converter is presented below.
Stage 1
[ t
0
<t<t
1
: Fig.2(a) ]First of all, S
1
and S
2
switches are in the off state. I
i
input current passes through the D
F
main diode at thisstage. At t=t
0
, i
S1
=0, i
S2
=0, i
DF
=I
i
, i
LR1
=0, i
LR2
=0 andv
CR 
=0 are valid. When the gate signal is applied to theS
2
, a resonance starts between L
R1
, L
R2
and C
. Then, S
2
current rises meanwhile D
F
current falls. L
R2
snubber inductance provides turn on switching with ZCS of S
2
,D
1
and D
2
.In this interval, depending on transformatoconversion ratio, input and output currents of transformator rise and D
F
current falls. At t=t
1
, the sumof the input and output currents of transformatoreaches to I
i
input current and then, D
F
current falls tozero and D
F
turns off with ZCS.
Stage 2
[ t
1
<t<t
2
: Fig.2(b) ]The main switch S
1
and the main diode D
F
are in off state and S
2
is in on state. At t=t
1
a resonance starts between C
S
-L
R1
-L
R2
-C
. The main switchs parasiticcapacitor C
S
discharges, at the same time the energy inL
R2
is transferred to the output side by the couplinginductance. At t=t
2
, V
CS
voltage becomes zero and D
S1
turns on with ZVS, meanwhile D
4
turns off and thisinterval ends.
Stage 3
[ t
2
<t<t
4
: Fig.2(c) ]D
S1
is turned on at t
2
. The resonant between L
R1
-L
R2
-C
continues. After this stage L
R2
inductance value isequal to the sum of L
il
and L
m
.In this stage, D
S1
diode conducts the excess of L
R2
current from the input current. The interval of this stageis time for the main switch S
1
to turn on with zerovoltage transation (ZVT). During this zero voltagetransition time, gate signal must be applied to the mainswitch S
1
. So S
1
can be turned on with both ZVS andZCS by ZVT. At t=t
3
, L
R2
current drops to the inputcurrent, so D
S1
turns off with ZCS and S
1
turns on withZVT. The main switch current starts to rise. At t=t
4
S
1
current reaches to the input current level and L
R2
current becomes zero. When the auxiliary switchcurrent becomes zero, it is time to cut off the gatesignal of S
2
. So, the auxiliary switch S
2
perfectly turnsoff with ZCS.
Stage 4
[ t
2
<t<t
4
: Fig.2(d) ]This interval starts at t=t
4
when S
2
switch is turnedoff. While S
1
conducts input current I
i
, a resonanceoccurs through L
R1
-C
-D
1
. The energy in L
R1
istransferred to the C
with this resonant. At t=t
5
, thisstage ends when L
R1
current is equal to zero and C
voltage reaches its maximum level.
Stage 5
[t
5
<t<t
6
: Fig.2(e) ]During this period, the main switch S
1
conducts inputcurrent I
i
and the snubber circuit is not active. Theduration of this interval is a large part of the on stateduration of the standart PWM boost converter and isdetermined by the PWM control to provide PFC.
Stage 6
[ t
6
<t<t
8
: Fig.2(f) ]At t=t
6
, when the control signal of the auxiliaryswitch S
2
is applied, a new resonance starts betweensnubber inductance L
R2
and snubber capacitor C
through C
-L
R2
-S
2
-S
1
.The auxiliary switch S
2
turned on with ZCS throughL
R2
. The auxiliary switch current rises and the mainswitch current falls due to the resonance. At t=t
7
, whenthe S
2
current reaches input current level, the mainswitch current becomes zero. After S
1
current falls tozero D
S1
is turned on with ZCS. There is zero currentand zero voltage on the main switch S
1
. So it is time tocut off the gate signal of S
1
to provide ZCT. A newresonance occurs through the way of C
-L
R2
-S
2
-D
S1
. D
S1
conducts the excess of i
LR2
from the input current. Att=t
8
, v
CR 
falls to zero and i
LR2
current reaches itsmaximum levels and this interval ends.
Stage 7
[ t
8
<t<t
9
: Fig.2(g) ]At t=t8, while v
CR 
voltage starts to be positive, D
1
diode is turned on. A resonance starts between L
R2
, L
R1
46© 2010 ACEEEDOI: 01.ijepe.01.02.09
 
ACEEE International Journal on Electrical and Power Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 2, July 2010and C
. L
R2
current falls again to I
i
and D
S1
current becomes zero. At t=t
9
, the diode D
S1
turns off with ZCS.The duration of the on time of the D
S1
is equal to theZCT time.
Figure 2. Equivalent circuit schemes of the operation modes
Stage 8
[ t
9
<t<t
10
: Fig.2(h) ]At t=t
9
, because i
LR2
current falls to I
i
, a resonanceoccurs between C
S
-L
R1
-L
R2
-C
with this current. i
LR2
current falls, and at t=t
10
, when i
LR2
current is equal tozero, S
2
can be turned off. So the auxiliary switch S
2
isturned off perfectly under ZCS.
Stage 9
[ t
10
<t<t
11
: Fig.2(i) ]There are two different closed circuits for thisinterval. For the first closed circuit, C
S
capacitor ischarged linearly with I
i
and for the second closedcircuit, a resonance occurs through L
R1
-C
-D
1
. At t=t
11
the sum of v
CS
and v
CR 
voltages is equal to V
o
, so D
3
diode can be turned on.
Stage 10
[ t
11
<t<t
12
: Fig.2(j) ]A new resonance occurs through L
R1
, C
S
and C
withI
i
input current. At t=t
12
, i
LR1
current falls to zero, so thisinterval ends. The energy stored in L
R1
inductance istransferred to the capacitors and load completely.
Figure 3. Key waveforms of the operation stages
Stage 11
[ t
12
<t<t
13
: Fig.2(k) ]C
S
is charged linearly with constant I
i
current and C
is discharged. At t=t
13,
when C
S
capacitor voltagereaches to V
o
, C
capacitor voltage falls to zero and D
F
diode is turned on with ZVS.
Stage 12
[ t
13
<t<t
14
: Fig.2(l) ]During this stage, the main diode D
F
conducts inputcurrent I
i
and the snubber circuit is not active. This time period is determined by the PWM control and large partof the off state of the converter. Finally, at t=t
14
=t
0
, oneswitching period is completed and then next switching period starts.EXPERIMENTAL RESULTSA prototype of a 300 W and 100 kHz PFC converter isshown in Fig. 4 to verify the predicted analysis of the47© 2010 ACEEEDOI: 01.ijepe.01.02.09

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