Comparison between Pigment Printing Systems with Acrylate and Butadiene Based Binders88
formed during some suitable fixing process, which usu-ally consists of dry heat and change in pH value, bringingabout either self-crosslinking or reaction with other suit-able crosslinking agents . Elasticity and improvedadhesion of the film to the substrate is achieved bycrosslinking. The crosslinking reaction must producecovalent bonds, which are insensitive to hydrolyzingagents (washing liquor, perspiration, industrial atmos-phere). The reaction should be activated in dry hot air bycuring process . While the prints are being dried, afilm is formed from the dispersed binder. Its formationtakes place in two stages: flocculation (or coagulation)and coalescence. During the first stage of film formation,water and surfactants are removed from the binder byabsorption and evaporation. The dispersed solids coagu-late to form a gel-like layer of very tightly packed ‘balls’,which have only poor solidity and adhesive properties. If the mechanically more stable, more redispersible, disper-sion binders are used, these coagulated particles can bebrought back to their original form by rubbing them withwater. During the second phase, the gel particles flowtogether to form a continuous film.The lowest temperature at which a film can be formeddepends upon chemical constitution, but for pigmentprinting it is usually around 5
C. The speed at which thefilm is formed depends upon the range of particle size. The reaction between the binders and the cellulosicsubstrate may be represented as follows in equation:
Binder-CH-ORHO-CelluloseBinder-CH-O-Cellulose + ROH
where R is CH
or H.Cross linking increases the crocking, washing and drycleaning fastness properties, but detrimentally affects thehandle of the fabric. When the binder molecule have noself-crosslinking groups, an additional cross linking agentsuch as urea formaldehyde or melamine formaldehydecondensate, methylolated urethane compounds etc, hav-ing at least two reactive groups per molecule are added inthe binder system .The present research work demonstrates the comparisonsbetween pigment printing systems with acrylate and buta-diene based binders. The influence on the crocking fast-ness, PVC migration, formaldehyde release and K/S valuesof the printed cotton fabric has also been investigated.
An optical brightener free, 100% cotton woven fabrichaving construction 25 ends/cm
, 21 picks/cm
and anarea density of 142 gm/m
was used for pigment printingpurpose. The fabric was desized enzymatically, scouredand bleached by an exhaust method.
2.2. Chemical & Colorants
Commercial pigment Imparon KB of BASF was used asa colorant in the printing process. Two different binder,binder ET (polyacrylate based) and halazarine binderFRS (butadiene based) of BASF were used. Leutexol HPwas also supplied by BASF and used as a thickener.Printofix WB liquid (melamine based) used as a fixative.All other chemicals ammonia, urea, polyvinyl chloride,TiO
were purchased from Merck chemicals Pakistanlimited.
Printing was carried out by laboratory hand screen-print-ing. Samples were cured on curing machine of Rapid.
Crocking fastness evaluated on AATCC Crock meter(CM-5 SDL Atlas), Fastness rating was evaluated oncolor matching cabinet of Verified by comparing withgrey-scale. The viscosity of the thickener paste was de-termined by Brookfield viscometer (DV-E model) withspindle number 6.The relative color strength of the prints,expressed as K/S values L, a, b, c CIE lab of the printedsamples were determined by reflectance measurementsusing Data color international spectrophotometer SF600.
2.4. Print Paste Preparation
The print paste was prepared in soft water with heavystring by adding 15 g/kg acrylate and butadiene basedbinder separately, 12 - 14 g/kg thickener, 6 g/kg ammo-nia to attain a pH 8 - 9 and 0.7% - 0.8% w/w fixativewere also added. Each print paste was prepared with 5%Imparon KB pigment and 95% stock paste. The viscosityof the final print paste was 28000 cps as determined withBrookfield viscometer.
2.4.1. Print Method
The printed fabric dried at 120
C for 2 min and cured at155
C for 5 minutes.
2.4.2. Fastness Testing
The fastness properties were determined according to theinternational standards of textile testing. The specifictests used were ISO-105-X10, BS1006:1990 (Assessmentof migration of textile color into polyvinyl chloride coat-ing), ENISO-14184-1:1998 (Formaldehyde release),AATCC-08 (color fastness to crocking) [12-14].
3. Results & Discussion
The pigment printing was performed with 5% Imparonred KB pigment in the laboratory with simple screen
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