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Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood

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Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
(also known as the
Pre-Raphaelites
) was a group of English painters, poets,and critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti.The three founders were soon joined by William Michael Rossetti, James Collinson, Frederic George Stephens and Thomas Woolner to form a seven-member "brotherhood".The group's intention was to reform art by rejecting what they considered to be themechanistic approach first adopted by the Mannerist artists who succeeded Raphael and Michelangelo.They believed that the Classical poses and elegant compositions of  Raphael in particular had been a corrupting influence on the academic teaching of art, hence the name "Pre-Raphaelite". In particular, they objected to the influence of  SirJoshua Reynolds,the founder of the English Royal Academy of Arts,whom they called "Sir Sloshua". To the Pre-Raphaelites, according to William Michael Rossetti, "sloshy"meant "anything lax or scamped in the process of painting ... and hence ... any thing orperson of a commonplace or conventional kind".
 In contrast, they wanted to return to
 
the abundant detail, intense colours, and complex compositions of  Quattrocento Italian and Flemish art.The Pre-Raphaelites have been considered the first avant-garde movement in art, though they have also been denied that status, because they continued to accept both theconcepts of  history painting and of  mimesis,or imitation of nature, as central to the purpose of art. However, the Pre-Raphaelites undoubtedly defined themselves as areform-movement, created a distinct name for their form of art, and published aperiodical, 
,to promote their ideas. Their debates were recorded in the
Pre- Raphaelite Journal
.
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Beginnings of the Brotherhood
Illustration by Holman Hunt of Thomas Woolner's poem "My Beautiful Lady",published in
The Germ
, 1850The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was founded in John Millais's parents' house on GowerStreet, London in 1848. At the initial meeting, John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti,and William Holman Hunt were present. Hunt and Millais were students at the Royal Academy of Arts.They had previously met in another loose association, asketching-society called the Cyclographic Club. Rossetti was a pupil of  Ford MadoxBrown.He had met Hunt after seeing his painting
The Eve of St. Agnes
, which is basedon Keats's poem.
 As an aspiring poet, Rossetti wished to develop the links betweenRomantic poetry and art. By autumn, four more members had also joined, to form aseven-member-strong Brotherhood. These were William Michael Rossetti (Dante Gabriel Rossetti's brother), Thomas Woolner, James Collinson,and Frederic George Stephens.
 Ford Madox Brown was invited to join, but preferred to remainindependent. He nevertheless remained close to the group. Some other young paintersand sculptors were also close associates, including Charles Allston Collins, Thomas Tupper,and Alexander Munro.They kept the existence of the Brotherhood secret from members of the Royal Academy.

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