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Chemistry of Life Notes

Chemistry of Life Notes

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Published by chris

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Published by: chris on Jan 16, 2009
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Chemistry of LifeA. _________________________ is the study of the molecules that compose living organisms.B. __________________ are the simplest form of matter to have unique chemical properties.1. Each element is identified by an _______________________ (the number of protonsin its nucleus).2. Six elements account for ________% of the body’s weight: ___________, ___________, ______________, ________________, _______________ and ______________.3. Around ____% consists of sulfur, magnesium, potassium, chlorine, ___________,and ___________.4. The last _____% consists of 12 elements known as the __________ elements.C. ________ are charged particles with _______________ numbers of protons and electrons.1. Elements with ____________ valence electrons tend to ____________ electrons, andthose with _____________ tend to _______________ electrons.a. A _________________ charged particle is called an ____________.b. A _________________ charged particle is called a _____________.D. ___________________ are ______________ that ionize in water and form solutions capableof ____________________ ______________________.E. Most mixtures in our body consist of __________________ dissolved or suspended in ____________.1. ____________ constitutes __________% of ________________.2. Water has the properties of ______________, ________________, ______________,chemical reactivity, and ______________ stability that allow it to support life.a. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic (hydro: __________; philic: _________; phobic: ________________)F. _______ is a measure of the _______________ of ______.1. An ___________ is any molecule that ________________ an H
(proton) in water.2. A ______________ is a _____________________.3. pH is a ___________________ from ____________, with a neutral pH equal to _____, ____________ pH less than 7, and ____________ pH greater than 7.4. Any solution that _________________ in pH is a _____________.
G. Organic substances have ________________and ________________, and includecarbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.1. _____________________ (CHO) are _________________ organic molecules with thegeneral formula ________________ (glucose is _________________)a. Simple carbohydrates are ________________ called ___________________ including __________________, _________________, and __________________.i. Glucose is ‘blood sugar’b. ____________________ are composed of two monosaccharides including ___________________ (glucose + fructose), __________________ (glucose + galactose), and ___________________ (glucose + glucose).c. __________________________ are long chains of ______________.i. Common polysaccharides include ____________________ which is madeby cells of the liver, muscles, brain, uterus, and vagina.A. __________________ are ______________ storage form of glucose.d. Carbohydrates can be ____________________ bonded to proteins and lipids toform ___________________ and _____________________.2. _____________ are ____________________ organic molecules composed usuallyof_____________ (C), _______________ (H) , and _______________ (O) with a high ratio of Hto O.a. We have 5 primary types of lipids in the body.i. ___________________ (FAs) are chains of usually 4-24 Cs witha__________________ at one end and a _____________ group at the other.ii. _______________________ or triglycerides (TAGs) contain ___ FAs andone ___________________ (a 3 C alcohol).iii. ___________________ are similar to neutral fats like ___________ exceptthey have a _____________________ group in place of 1 FA.A. These have a ________________ tail and a _________________ head.iv. ___________________ are derived from a FA called _____________ acidand act as chemical ________________ between cells.v. ________________ are _______________ derived from _______________________ with 17C arranged in 4 rings.3. _______________ are the most versatile molecules in the body.
Proteios: __________________ a. A protein is a chain of _______________________ that include ______________materials, ______________ sources, chemical ________________, cell____________________, _________________, ____________________, and ______________.b. There are _____ kinds of amino acids that combine to form proteins. Eachamino acid has a central ____________, an ___________ group, and a _________________ group with the carboxyl distinguishing each amino acid.4. ____________________ are polymers of nucleotides with __________ as the largest.a. __________ gives instructions for synthesizing all of the body’s _______________ and transferring ___________________ informationfrom one ________ to another.Review Questions1. Define biochemistry.2. What 6 elements account for most of the body’s weight?3. Define ion, cation and anion.4. What properties does water possess that make it useful for supporting life?5. Define hydrophilic and hydrophobic.6. What does pH measure? What is considered a basic pH, acidic?7. What are the primary organic molecules in our body?8. Define and give an example of a monosaccharide and a disaccharide.9. What is the body’s storage form of glucose?10. What are glycoproteins and glycolipids?11. What are the 5 types of lipids in the body?12. What are the components of a triacylglycerol?13. What are proteins composed of?14. What are the components of amino acids?15. What are some common functions of proteins in the body?16. What are the important nucleic acids in the body, and their functions?

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