in Rome. The bishop of Rome (also called the Pope) was seen as the successor of the apostle Peter and earthly representative of Christ.In the East, the Roman Empire still existed, based in Constantinople. The spiritual leader here was stillthe Emperor, and the language was Greek. This was being pressed from the south by the expansion of the newfound faith of Islam. The old heartland’s of Christianity, Egypt and Syria, had already converted,and Christianity lives on to this day there as a minority faith. Eastern Christianity spread north intoRussian (founding the Russian Orthodox church in Kiev in 988) as it lost ground to Islam to the south.Islam to the south inherited much of the legacy of Greco-Roman civilization, and by now the typicalChristian was a northern farmer. The Christian stronghold was Europe. It was key in establishing literaryand learning habits amongst the ex-barbarians of Europe, and in uniting them (although they still fought,they now shared a common faith).
Western Europe 1100-1600 AD
With all of Western Europe under rule of law based on Christianity, and with Latin as the officiallanguage of learning, Christianity was seen as territorial. From this emerged the idea of a crusade totake back the holy land. These happened with varied success, but in 1204 Western crusaders lootedConstantinople, firmly dividing Eastern and Western Christianity, and setting the stage for the fall of theEastern Roman Empire to the Turks in 1453. With that, the final vestiges of the Hellenic phase of Christianity disappeared. Ironically, at around the same time grew a renewed interest in studying thescriptures in their earlier Greek version (as opposed to the Latin translations).The most important technological development of this period was the printing press. The wider availability of the scriptures in local languages, and the amount and extent of the corruption andmanipulation that had spread in the higher levels of Christianity (which were often the higher levels of local power), brought about the Reformation period.The Catholic, or conservative reformation, continued the view that the one and only true center of worship was the church of Rome, with the Pope at its head. The Protestant reformation held thatsalvation is by grace only, received through faith only, and the guide to it is the scripture only. They didnot recognize Roman rule, and encouraged local, regional and national ‘Reformed’ churches. TheCatholic view was a significantly softened version of the ‘three onlys’. Martin Luther (1483-1546) andJohn Calvin (1509-64) were originally leaders of local reform movements. A third and more radical reform movement, the Anabaptist movement, also dates from this period. Theyencouraged living outside the civil community and to a strict Christian way of life (according to Christianlaw as opposed to civil law). They re-created the image of the persecuted Christian and identified thechurch with its members rather than an institution or building. A century of conflict between Catholic and Protestant ensued (the Anabaptists were a small minority).Eventually Southern Europe settled as Catholic, with Latin as the primary language of worship, andNorthern Europe as Protestant, with worship in local languages.To the East Christianity spread to Bulgaria, Serbia and Russia, and the fall of Constantinople shifted thecenter of the Orthodox church to Rome.
Overseas expansion 1600-1920 AD
From around 1500 Spain, Portugal, France, Holland and England all acquired vast maritime empires.With the Western people went Christianity. The territorial model of Christianity, that the leader of the