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Psychological.science.third.canadian.edition

Psychological.science.third.canadian.edition

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Published by samneznayuktotakoi

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Published by: samneznayuktotakoi on Sep 11, 2012
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01/17/2014

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A UNIQUE FOCUSON VISUAL LEARNING
Throughout this edition, new figures bring abstract concepts to life for students. Thethird edition supports visual learners with clear, attractive graphics that stimulatestudents’ thinking skills and drive home their understanding of key concepts.
Scientific Method
illustrations care-fully and consistently lead studentsthrough the steps of some of themost interesting experiments andstudies.
1
FIGURE 6.24
Scientific Method: Bandura’s Bobo Doll Studies
Hypothesis: 
Children can acquire behaviours through observation.
Research Method:Result: 
When children were allowed to play with the doll later, those who had seen theaggressive display were more than twice as likely to act aggressively toward the doll.
Conclusion: 
Exposing children to violence may encourage them to act aggressively.Two groups of preschool children were shown a film of an adult playing with a largeinflatable doll called Bobo.
2
One group saw the adult play quietly with the doll (activity not shown below).
3
The other group saw the adult attack the doll (activity shown in top row below).
Try for Yourself
figures allowstudents to be their own researchsubjects and to experience themethods of psychological science.
FIGURE 5.28
Try for Yourself:Simultaneous Contrast
Look at the colours of the central squaresin each pair. Do they look the same ordifferent?
Result: 
The central squares in each pair areidentical, but they look different becauseof the different background colours. Forexample, most people see the grey squarethat is surrounded with red as lighter thanthe grey square surrounded with green.If you doubt that the central squares areidentical, cover the surrounding portions ofeach square.
 
Outer earPrimary auditorycortexThalamusEardrum(tympanicmembrane)Cochlea Auditory nerve(to brain)Middle earOssiclesOval windowHammer AnvilStirrup Auditory canalInner earSemicircularcanals
Stimuli
 Variations in air pressureproduce sound waves thatarrive at the ear.
1Receptor
These sound waves movethrough the outer ear and makethe eardrum vibrate, and then…
2Pathway to the brain
These signals travel along theauditory nerve to the brain’sprimary auditory cortex.
5Resulting perception
 As a result, you hearthe sound.
6
…move through themiddle ear, causingthe ossicles to vibrate.The ossicles’ vibrationcauses the oval windowto vibrate…
3
…creating pressure waves inthe inner ear’s fluid that bendhair cells and cause neuronson the basilar membrane to fireneural signals.
4
FIGURE 5.14
How We Hear
 
BasilarmembraneBasilarmembraneOuter ductOuter ductPressure waveInner ductHair cellsSound causesbasilar membraneto wave up anddownCochlea, partiallyuncoiledSound vibrationsfrom oval windowTo oval window
How We . . .
figures take students step by stepthrough complex processes such as how wehear and how we see.