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Gas Production Eng.-sanjay Kumar

Gas Production Eng.-sanjay Kumar

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Contents
- - - - - - - - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - -
- - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - -- -- - - - - - - - t _ - - - - - -- .
r " . c f i a f < c c " C , c , c , c , c , c , c , c , c , c , c , c , c , c c 
. , .. ,
....
,
.............................
VII
To ProjC!J30r
Donold
L.
Katz,University
oj
Michigan,
jor
hisinnumerable
contributions tonaturalgas engineering;and
my
family Jor theirconstant encouragementand support.
Contributions
in
Petroleum Ceology
and
Engineering
Volume 4
G a s ~ ~ l u ! : t i
"
on-Engineering
~
f
~
'"
:\01
9
*
01
.,10'
~
Copyri
@.t.
, ' .
~~~g
Company,
Houston, 1l
1
i1~.
Printed in
the
United States
of
America. Thisbook,
or
parts thereof,may not be reproduced in
any
form withoutpermission ofthe publisher.
Library of
Congress Cataloging-in-Publication
Data
Kumar,
S.
(Sanjay),1960-
Cas
productionengineering.(Contributions
in
petroleum geology
&
engineering;
v.
4)
Includes index.
1.
Cas
drilling(Petroleumengineering)
2.
Gasengineering.
I.
Title.
II.
Series.TN880.2.KS61987 622'.338587-7452
ISBN 0·.87201-577_7
ISBN
0-87201-066-X
(serie!;)
Iv
1.Natural Gas-Origin
and
Development
.......................
1
J!llJ"Cyl!!9tian.
What
IsNatural Gas?Originof
Natural
Gas.
Other
Sources ofCaseous Fuel.
~ral
Cas
Production
and
ProcessingSystem.Questions
and
Problems. References.
Gas Properties2. Phase Behavior Fundamentals.
.....
.
.....
.
.................
18
,./'
Introduction. Qualitative Hydrocarbon Phase Behavior.
Quantitative
PhaseBehavior and Vapor. Liquid Equilibrium. Applications. Predictionof
the
Phase Envelope. QuestiOns and Problems. References.
3 . .Properties of Natural Gases
..............................•.
39
."./'
Introduction. EquationsofState. Critical Pressure
and
Temperature Deter·mination.
The Cas
Compressibility Factor.SomeZ·Factor Related Proper.ties. CompressibilityofCases. Viscosity of Gases.SpecificHeat for Hydrocar. bon Gases. Questions and Problems. References.
GasProcessing4. Gas
and
Liquid Separation
.............
.
...
.
......
.
.....
..
.
18
v
Introduction. Separation
Equipment.
Types
of
Separators.Separation Princi·pies. Factors Affecting Separation. Separator Design. Stage Separation.
Low.
Temperature Separation.
Cas
Cleaning. Flash
Calcu
lations. Questions andProblems. References.
~
Gas-WaterSystems
an
dDehydrationProcessing
.•..•.........
169
Introduction. Water
Content
of
Natural
Gjlses. Gas
fudrates.
Hydrate
I
nhi·
bition
b ~
Additive
In~on.
Absorption Dehydration. Adsorption
Oenyara.
tion.
De
ydrationby
Expansfon Refrigeration. QuestiOns
and
Problems. Ref·erences.
v
 
6. Desulfurization Processes
...........
, , , ' ,
.....
.
............
255
Introduction. Removal Processes.SolidBedSweeteningProcesses. Physical AbsorptionProcesses.Chemical
Absorption-
The
Alkanol·Amine Processes.Chemical
Absorption-The
Carbonate
Processes. Questions and Problems.References.
Gas
Production
and
Flow
7.
Steady-State
Flow or
Gas
Through
Pipes
....................
275
Introduction.GasFlow Fundamentals. Vertical and InclinedSingle-Phase FlowofGas. Gas Flow Over Hilly Terrain. Gas Flow
Through
Restrictions.Temperature Profile in Flowing GasSystems.Questions and Problems. References.
8.
~tiltiphase
Gas--Liquid Flow
..............................
365
.....-
Introduction. Approximate Method for Two-PhaseSystems.Multiphase Flow.
~
Loading in
Gas
\Vells. Questions
and
Problems. References.
9.
Gas
Compression
.....................
...
,
..............
394
Introduction. Types of Compressors. Compressor Selection. CompressionProcesses. Compressor Design Fundamentals. Designing Reciprocating
COIll-
pressors. Designing Centrifugal Compressors. Designing Rotary Compressors.Questions and Problems. References.
10. Gas
Flow Measurement
................•..............
.
...
451
--
/Introduction. Measurement Fundamentals. Methods
of
Measurement. Orl
J
fice Meters.
Other
Types
of
Measurement. Questions
and
Problems. Refer
ences.
11.
Gas
Gathering
and
Transport
................
.
.............
529
Introduction.
Gathering
Systems. Steady-State Flow in Simple Pipeline
Sys-
tems. Steady-StateFlow in Pipeline Networks. Unsteady-State
flow
in Pipelines. SomeApproximate Solutions for Transient Flow. Pipeline Economics.Questions and Problems. References.
Appendix
A.
General
Data and
Unit Conversion Factors
..
, ,
.......
585
Appendix
B.
Computer
Programs (FORTRAN Subroutines)
...
,
...
,
623
Index
.......................
...
,
...
.
..
,.. ,
...
,
....
........
651
Preface
With this book
I
havesoughtto provide a rigorous
and
comprehensivetext
that
reHectsa
broad
spectrum
or
natural gas engineeringexperience.My motivation
came
primarily fromsomegas engineering courses
I
taught
in
the
United States
and
overseas
that
made me realize the limitations
of
theexisting material
and
the frustration
or
having to use several different publications,some of which would contradict others. Notwithstanding the enormity
or
the task,
I
decided to
write
a book to eliminate this conrusion
and
provide a wider
and
more detailed coverage
of
this topic. Much of
the
material presented here was
drawn
from these lectures .This book
is
designed to be a moderately advanced textbook ror students
and
a
handy
reference for practicing engineers.
It
was
written
with the assumption
that
some readers
with
little
or
no background in gas engineeringwill use it
as
their
first book.
To
keep things interesting for the expert.
I
have
sought to include
the
most current developments reported in the latest
pub
lished works to
the
extent possible
without
dragging this book into
an
interminably long series
of
books on these topics. Pertinent references
are
included
at
the
end
of each
chapter
for those
wanting
more details. Almostevery
chapter
includes worked examples to enhance understanding
and
some practice questions
and
problems
that
will aid in testing this understanding.(Answersto the questions
and
problems
are
available in a separateinstructor's guide.)
Chapter
1,
an introduction to
the
scope
of
natural gas engineering, can beskipped by most seasoned readers. Chapters
2
and
3
describe the properties
of natural
gas
that are
crucial
in
designing
andoperating natural
gas systems. Chapters
4,
5,
and
6
deal
with
gas
processing-Chapter
4
discusses
the
separation
or
gas from oil
and water
from a typical reservoir;
Chapter
5
provides insight into gas-water systems
and
dehydration processi
ng
techniques for
natural
gas;
and Chapter
6
examines some
or
the
importantand
widely used desulrurization processes for
natural
gas,Chapters
7-11
present
important
topics in gas production
and
How
Chapter
7
describes relationships for
the
steady state flow
or
gas throughhorizontal, inclined,
and
vertical pipes;
Chapter
8 outlines
the
methods
ofhandling
multiphase flow encountered in gas production;
Chapter
9 provides information on gas compression;
Chapter
10
discusses gas flow measurement;
and
finally,
Chapter
11
describes gas gathering
and
transmissionsystems,
and
deal.s with the design
and
modeling of the complete production
"
 
and
transportsystem.Appendix A will
be
helpful in handling the severalfrequent1yconfusingsystems
of
units
that,
unfortunately, are
our
legacy
in
engineering.Appendix B presents some general FORTRAN subroutines
that
willhelp readerswrite computersprograms to implement many
of
the techniquespresented
in
this book.
It
has been mygoodfortune to have
had
close associations with manyv
10
mentofthis work. I am thankful to Drs.Kern HGuppy
and
George
v.
Chilingar for their enthusiastic interest,comments,
and
suggestionsfor this book.
The
figures
and
drawing.. provided byseveralcompanies
and
institutions are gratefully acknowledged.Manysections
of the
book could only be included because
of the
interest
and
curiosity
of
my students.
They
never failed to ask pertinent questions
and
draw
the discussion to related relevant issues. Finally,
the
moral supportfrom my family has been of great value
in
the
moments
of
frustration duringthiswork, Ithankmy father. Dr. Kundan
L.
Coyal, for his many discussions
and
suggestionsfor this book and his insistence
that
I keep
at
it.Isubmitthis work to the engineering community with
the
hope
that
itshallinspire many minds, both
the
young
and
the elCperienced, to greaterunderstanding
and
creativity in this endless search for knowledge.
San;ay Kumar, Ph.D.
Los
Angeles, California
1
and
IntroductionThe earliest records of
natural
gas go back to A.D.
221-263
when it wasfirst used as a fuel
in
China during
the
ShuHan
dynasty.
The
gas, obtainedfrom shallow wells, was distributed through
an
interesting piping system:hollow bamboos.
Later
evidence
is
not found until
the
early 17th century.when natural gas was used on a small scale for heating
and
lighting
in
northern
Italy. In
the
United States,
natural
gas was first discovered
in
Fredonia, New
York,
in
1821.
It
is
this latter discovery
that
has led, for the most
part,
to
the
developments we see today.
In
the
years following this discovery,
natural
gas was
used
merely as a fuel locally: it was difficult to store
and
transport
and
had
Iitt1e
or
no commercial value. Even in
the
19205
and
'30s,
natural
gas was only produced as
an unwanted
byproduct
of
crude oil production. Only a small
amount of
gas was pipelined to industrial areas forcommercial use, most
of
it being vented to
the
air
or
flared. From these
humble
beginning.., the
natural
gas industry has burgeoned. especially in
the
years following World War II.
Natural
gas now accounts for almost one
fifth
of
the world's
primary
energy consumption, surpassing coal
and
secondonly to oil (see Tables
1-1
and
1-2).Several factors are responsible for these developments: New processes permit the manufacture
of
myriad petrochemicals
and
fertilizers from
natural
gas; gas
is
a clean, efficient, easily combustible, low-sulfur fuel
and
has consequently replaced coal as a domestic, industrial,
and
power generation fuel
in
many parts
ofthe
world; difficulties in storing
and
transporting gas havebeen overcome
by the
development
of
long-distance, large-diameter steelpipelines
and
powerful compression
equipment;
liquefied
natural
gas(LNG),produced by liquefying
natural
gas
by
a refrigeration cycle to less
(text continued
on
poge
4)
1