Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Recent Advance in Multi-Carrier Underwater Acoustic Communications

Recent Advance in Multi-Carrier Underwater Acoustic Communications

Ratings: (0)|Views: 33 |Likes:
Published by ijcsis
Underwater acoustic (UWA) channel is characterized as a severe multipath propagation channel due to signal reflections from the surface and the bottom of the sea and also a fast time-varying channel due to transceiver motion and medium inhomogeneities. Therefore, UWA communications have been regarded as the most challenging wireless communications. The Multi-carrier communication is a promising communication technique for future communication systems. In the past decade, much research literature focuses on deploying multi-carrier communications in UWA environments. This paper propose an overview of recent advance in multi-carrier UWA communications, which includes but not limited to Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Multi-input-Multi-Output (MIMO), and their related channel estimation and adaptive communications.
Underwater acoustic (UWA) channel is characterized as a severe multipath propagation channel due to signal reflections from the surface and the bottom of the sea and also a fast time-varying channel due to transceiver motion and medium inhomogeneities. Therefore, UWA communications have been regarded as the most challenging wireless communications. The Multi-carrier communication is a promising communication technique for future communication systems. In the past decade, much research literature focuses on deploying multi-carrier communications in UWA environments. This paper propose an overview of recent advance in multi-carrier UWA communications, which includes but not limited to Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Multi-input-Multi-Output (MIMO), and their related channel estimation and adaptive communications.

More info:

Published by: ijcsis on Sep 11, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/14/2013

pdf

text

original

 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 8, 2012
Recent Advance in Multi-Carrier UnderwaterAcoustic Communications
G. P. Harish
Annamalai University,
Tamilnadu, India
 
 Abstract
—underwater acoustic (UWA) channel is characterizedas a severe multipath propagation channel due to signalreflections from the surface and the bottom of the sea and also afast time-varying channel due to transceiver motion and mediuminhomogeneities. Therefore, UWA communications have beenregarded as the most challenging wireless communications. TheMulti-carrier communication is a promising communicationtechnique for future communication systems. In the past decade,much research literature focuses on deploying multi-carriercommunications in UWA environments. This paper propose anoverview of recent advance in multi-carrier UWAcommunications, which includes but not limited to OrthogonalFrequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Multi-input-Multi-Output (MIMO), and their related channel estimation andadaptive communications.Keywords-
 
Underwater acoustic channel, OFDM, MIMO,Adaptive communications, Channel estimation.
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
Signal propagation in underwater acoustic (UWA)environments will suffer severe multipath delay due toreflections from the sea surface and bottom. In addition, theUWA channel is a kind of fast time-varying channels due tosurface wave and transceivers in motion, mediuminhomogeneities and sound speed anomaly, and effect of wind-generated bubbles [1-3]. Therefore, UWAcommunications have been regarded as one of the mostchallenging wireless communication systems, especially inshallow water environments. How to achieve high data rateand reliable communications in UWA environment is one of challenging topics of wireless communications that hasperplexed scientists for a long time.Multi-carrier communications is a promising technique thatcould increase the system capacity and data rate significantly.Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is asophisticated multi-carrier technique, which has merits of robust overcoming multipath propagation delay via cyclicprefix (CP), mitigating inter-symbol interference (ISI) andinter-channel interference (ICI). Currently, OFDM has beenadopted in the 4
th
generation wireless communication systems,Wireless LAN network, HDTV and so on [4]. However,OFDM applications in UWA communications are very scarce[5-7].In this paper, we propose an overview of multi-carriercommunications in UWA environments. The content includesOFDM modulation-based channel estimation, OFDM andMulti-input-Multi-output (MIMO)-OFDM UWAcommunication systems, and their related adaptivecommunications.The rest of this paper is organized as follows: Section II isthe introduction of OFDM communication systems. Section IIIis the overview of channel estimation for UWAcommunications. Section IV is the overview of recent advancein multi-carrier UWA communication systems. Section V isthe conclusion of this paper.II.
 
OFDM
 
UWA
 
C
OMMUNICATION
 Figure 1 depicts eigen-ray propagation in UWAenvironments. Here, eigen-ray means acoustic wave pathpropagating from the transmitter side to the receiver side [8].Figure 2 schematically depicts the structure of an OFDMUWA communication system. The key characteristics andprinciples of operation of OFDM communications includeorthogonality, implementation using the FFT/IFFT algorithm,guard interval/cyclic prefix for elimination of ISI, simplifiedequalization, and so on [9].Figure 1. Schematic description of acoustic signal propagationin underwater acoustic environments
53http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 8, 2012
Figure 2. Schematic description of UWA OFDMcommunications systemsIII.
 
M
ULTI
-C
ARRIER
-B
ASED
UWA
 
C
HANNEL
E
STIMATION
 Channel estimation techniques in UWA environments canbe divided into two categories: deterministic approach andstochastic approach [10]. The deterministic approach regardsthe channel as a set of fixed unknown parameters to beestimated and solve a least squares estimation problem torecover the channel, while the stochastic approach exploits thesecond order statistics of the channels. The existing algorithmsof these approaches find the proper correlation between boththe time and frequency domain and linearly combine toreconstruct the channel state information (CSI) for the desiredtime and frequency slot. Since most of these algorithmsexhibit high complexity, the applications and research of statistics approaches in UWA environments are scarce due tothe difficulty of tracking fast time-varying channels. In thefollowing of this section, we propose an overview of channelalgorithms for the deterministic approach and stochaticapproach, respectively.In the deterministic approach, the channel estimator, suchas Least Square (LS) and Minimum Mean Square Error(MMSE), and pilot signal are required for OFDM channelestimations. [11] proposed pilot-aided OFDM channelestimations, which involve in the block-type and comb-typepilots for OFDM systems. Authors prove that the proposedchannel estimators can work effectively in both time andfrequency domains for tracking fast time-varying UWAchannels. [10] proposed efficient channel estimation schemesfor OFDM systems in UWA environments. A robust channelestimator using pilot symbol assisted modulation (PSAM) forboth single-input and single-output (SISO) and MIMO systemis developed which provides excellent performance, goodspectrum efficiency and manageable complexity. In [12],frequency and time correlation of the UWA channel wereexploited to obtain a low-complexity adaptive channelestimation algorithm for multiple-input–multiple- output(MIMO) spatial multiplexing of independent data streams. Thealgorithm is coupled with non-uniform Doppler prediction andtracking, which enable decision-directed operation andreduces the overhead. In [13], the performance of three pilotpatterns and their own application conditions are analyzed andcompared. According to the simulation and experiment results,it is concluded that scatter pilot pattern is very suitable forOFDM system for underwater acoustic communications.Besides, the other deterministic algorithms with significantperformance, they can be found in [14-16].In the stochastic approach, [17] considered UWA channelestimation based on sparse recovery using the recentlydeveloped homotopy algorithm. The UWA communicationsystem under consideration employs OFDM and receiverpreprocessing to compensate for the Doppler Effect beforechannel estimation. [18] provided a novel UWA Channelestimation and Simulator based on measured scatteringfunctions.In addition to these two categories, there is much literatureengages in establishing effectively channel estimation methodsfor OFDM UWA communications. [19] investigated twomethods for estimating the matched signal transformationscaused by time-varying UWA channels in OFDMcommunication systems. The first channel estimation methodis based on discretizing the wideband spreading function time-scale representation of the channel output using the Mellintransform. The second method is based on extracting the time-scale features of distinct ray paths in the received signal usinga modified matching pursuit decomposition algorithm.IV.
 
R
ECENT
A
DVANCE IN
M
ULTI
-C
ARRIER
UWAC
OMMUNICATIONS
 
 A.
 
OFDM UWA Communications
We discuss several important issues of OFDM UWAcommunications. Due to unique properties of UWA channels,OFDM UWA communication systems have many differentpoints compared with radio frequency OFDM communications.[20] applied OFDM to realize parallel transmission of spreadspectrum signal in UWA communications, so as to providerobust acoustic links or long distance communication abilities.The traditional CP-based OFDM communications using aoverlap-add method have a bad performances when channel issevere frequency-selective, especially with channel nulls,which is often encountered in UWA channels, [21] utilizedzero-padding (ZP)-OFDM channel equalization on the premiseof the channel transfer matrix is Toeplitz matrix, Monte-Carlosimulation proved that this method has a better performancethan CP-OFDM, and has a good application prospect forUWA communications. [22] presented a desirable property of OFDM that one signal design can be easily scaled to fit intodifferent transmission bandwidths with negligible changes onthe receiver.Doppler Shift is an important factor that affects theperformance of UWA communication systems. Therefore,how to overcome the Doppler Shift problem in OFDM UWAcommunications becomes a challenging issue. [23] focused onZP-OFDM to minimize the transmission power. In addition,authors treated the channel as having a common Dopplerscaling factor on all propagation paths, and propose a two-stepapproach to mitigating the Doppler effect: (1) non-uniform
54http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 8, 2012
Doppler compensation via resampling that converts a"wideband" problem into a "narrowband" problem and (2)high-resolution uniform compensation of the residual Doppler.[24] studied the performance of OFDM over UWA multipathchannels with different Doppler scales on different paths. [25]treated the channel as having a common Doppler scalingfactor on all propagation paths, and propose a novel approachto mitigating the Doppler effects in OFDM UWAcommunication systems.Mitigation of ICI and ISI of OFDM UWA communicationsystems is another challenging issue for achieving high datarate and reliable communications. [26] focused on CP-OFDMover time-varying UWA channels. To cope with the ICI thatarises at the receiver side because of the time variations in thechannel, authors considered two ICI-mitigation techniques. Inthe first scheme, the ICI coefficients are explicitly estimated,and minimum mean square error linear equalization based onsuch estimates is performed. In the second approach, noexplicit ICI estimation is performed, and detection is based onan adaptive decision-feedback equalizer applied in thefrequency domain across adjacent subcarriers.Real implementations and performance analysis of OFDMUWA communication systems have been investigated bymany researchers. [27] designed and implemented the OFDMsignal transmitter with FPGA (field programmable gate array)and DSPs (digital signal processor, ADSP-TS101). [28-28]analyzed the performance of capacity criterion-based OFDMUWA communications. Above all, [29] derived bounds to thechannel capacity of OFDM systems over the UWA fadingchannel as a function of the distance between the transmitterand the receiver. The upper bound is obtained under perfectCSI at the receiver. The lower bound is obtained assuming theinput is drawn from phase-shift keying (PSK) constellationwhich results in non-Gaussian distribution of the output signaland no CSI.
 B.
 
 MIMO-OFDM UWA Communications
The MIMO-OFDM scheme is one kind of more advancecommunication technique for UWA communications. MIMO-OFDM could further increase the system capacity and datarate over the bandwidth limited channels. [30-31] presented aMIMO system design, where spatial multiplexing is appliedwith OFDM signals. The proposed receiver works on a block-by-block basis, where null subcarriers are used for Dopplercompensation, pilot subcarriers are used for channelestimation, and a MIMO detector consisting of a hybrid use of successive interference cancellation. [32-33] provided furtherresults of MIMO-OFDM UWA Communications. [34]analyzed MIMO-OFDM communications for shallow waterenvironments, which is more challenging than normal UWAcommunication systems.
C.
 
 Adaptive Multi-Carrier UWA Communications
UWA communications possess properties of severalchannel fading and limited bandwidth resource. Therefore,adaptive techniques are more valuable to be adopted in UWAcommunications, especially for shallow water environments.In order to achieve adaptive signal transmission, informationof the receiver side is indispensable. However, due to limitedbandwidth resource, traditional perfect feedback techniquesused in radio frequency wireless systems become impracticalfor UWA communications. [35-38] involved limited feedback techniques in UWA OFDM communications for the first time,which makes adaptive signal propagation and resourceallocation for complicated UWA environments possible. Thisinnovation can be regarded as an important breakthrough forUWA communications, which could significantly increase thesystem performance while save communication resourcesimultaneously. Furthermore, [39] analyzed the minimumBER-based performance of adaptive OFDMUWA communications with limited feedback. Other adaptivemulti-carrier UWA communication techniques can be found in[40-41].V.
 
C
ONCLUSION
 This paper provided an overview of multi-carriercommunications in UWA environments. Future research canfocus on multi-carrier techniques together with other advancedwireless communication techniques for UWA communications,such as OFDM with cooperative transmission, and OFDMwith cognitive radio. Definitely, these techniques willsignificantly improve the performance of UWAcommunication systems.R
EFERENCES
 
[1]
 
W. Yang and T. C. Yang, “High-Frequency Channel Characterizationfor M-ary Frequency-Shift-Keying Underwater AcousticCommunications”, Journal of Acoustical Society of America, vol. 120,no. 5, pp. 2615-2626, August 2006[2]
 
T. C. Yang, "Temporal Coherence of Acoustic Rays and Modes Usingthe Path Integral Approach”, Joural of Acoustical Society of America,vol.131, no. 6, pp. 1716-1722, June 2012[3]
 
T. C. Yang, “Properties of Underwater Acoustic CommunicationChannels in Shallow Water”, Journal of Acoustical Society of America,vol.131, no. 129, pp. 129-145[4]
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orthogonal_frequency-division_multiplexing [5]
 
D. Wang, R. Xu, S. Zheng, F. Xu, X. Hu and H. Liu, “Research onBased-Band OFDM Underwater Acoustic Communication System”,ICISE conference, 2703-2706, 2009[6]
 
L. Zhang, X. Xu, H. Sun and Y. Chen, “Performance Analysis of IRACodes for Underwater Acoustic OFDM Communication System”,WiCom Conference, pp.1-4, 2009[7]
 
P. Kumar, “DCT Based OFDM for Underwater AcousticCommunication”, RAIT Conference, pp.170-176, 2012[8]
 
S. Byun, S. Kim, Y. Lim, and W. Seong,”Time-Varying UnderwaterAcoustic Channel Modeling for Moving Platform”, IEEE OceansConference, pp. 1-4, 2007[9]
 
A. A. Hutter, “Design of OFDM Systems for Frequency-Selective andTime-Variant Channels”, International Seminar on BroadbandCommunications, pp.1-6, 2002[10]
 
D. N. Liu, S. Yerramail, and U. Mitra, “On Efficient Channel Estimationfor Underwater Acoustic OFDM Systems”, ACM WUWNet conference,pp. 1-8, 2009[11]
 
X. Huang and V. B. Lawrence, “OFDM with Pilot Aided ChannelEstimation for Time-Varying Shallow Water Acoustic Channels”, IEEECMC conference, pp.442-446, 2010
55http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->