(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 8, 2012
Doppler compensation via resampling that converts a"wideband" problem into a "narrowband" problem and (2)high-resolution uniform compensation of the residual Doppler. studied the performance of OFDM over UWA multipathchannels with different Doppler scales on different paths. treated the channel as having a common Doppler scalingfactor on all propagation paths, and propose a novel approachto mitigating the Doppler effects in OFDM UWAcommunication systems.Mitigation of ICI and ISI of OFDM UWA communicationsystems is another challenging issue for achieving high datarate and reliable communications.  focused on CP-OFDMover time-varying UWA channels. To cope with the ICI thatarises at the receiver side because of the time variations in thechannel, authors considered two ICI-mitigation techniques. Inthe first scheme, the ICI coefficients are explicitly estimated,and minimum mean square error linear equalization based onsuch estimates is performed. In the second approach, noexplicit ICI estimation is performed, and detection is based onan adaptive decision-feedback equalizer applied in thefrequency domain across adjacent subcarriers.Real implementations and performance analysis of OFDMUWA communication systems have been investigated bymany researchers.  designed and implemented the OFDMsignal transmitter with FPGA (field programmable gate array)and DSPs (digital signal processor, ADSP-TS101). [28-28]analyzed the performance of capacity criterion-based OFDMUWA communications. Above all,  derived bounds to thechannel capacity of OFDM systems over the UWA fadingchannel as a function of the distance between the transmitterand the receiver. The upper bound is obtained under perfectCSI at the receiver. The lower bound is obtained assuming theinput is drawn from phase-shift keying (PSK) constellationwhich results in non-Gaussian distribution of the output signaland no CSI.
MIMO-OFDM UWA Communications
The MIMO-OFDM scheme is one kind of more advancecommunication technique for UWA communications. MIMO-OFDM could further increase the system capacity and datarate over the bandwidth limited channels. [30-31] presented aMIMO system design, where spatial multiplexing is appliedwith OFDM signals. The proposed receiver works on a block-by-block basis, where null subcarriers are used for Dopplercompensation, pilot subcarriers are used for channelestimation, and a MIMO detector consisting of a hybrid use of successive interference cancellation. [32-33] provided furtherresults of MIMO-OFDM UWA Communications. analyzed MIMO-OFDM communications for shallow waterenvironments, which is more challenging than normal UWAcommunication systems.
Adaptive Multi-Carrier UWA Communications
UWA communications possess properties of severalchannel fading and limited bandwidth resource. Therefore,adaptive techniques are more valuable to be adopted in UWAcommunications, especially for shallow water environments.In order to achieve adaptive signal transmission, informationof the receiver side is indispensable. However, due to limitedbandwidth resource, traditional perfect feedback techniquesused in radio frequency wireless systems become impracticalfor UWA communications. [35-38] involved limited feedback techniques in UWA OFDM communications for the first time,which makes adaptive signal propagation and resourceallocation for complicated UWA environments possible. Thisinnovation can be regarded as an important breakthrough forUWA communications, which could significantly increase thesystem performance while save communication resourcesimultaneously. Furthermore,  analyzed the minimumBER-based performance of adaptive OFDMUWA communications with limited feedback. Other adaptivemulti-carrier UWA communication techniques can be found in[40-41].V.
This paper provided an overview of multi-carriercommunications in UWA environments. Future research canfocus on multi-carrier techniques together with other advancedwireless communication techniques for UWA communications,such as OFDM with cooperative transmission, and OFDMwith cognitive radio. Definitely, these techniques willsignificantly improve the performance of UWAcommunication systems.R
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