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B-1183, Water Quality for Wyoming Livestock & Wildlife A Review of the Literature Pertaining to Health Effects of Inorganic Contaminants

B-1183, Water Quality for Wyoming Livestock & Wildlife A Review of the Literature Pertaining to Health Effects of Inorganic Contaminants

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Water is the single most important nutrient for livestock and big game wildlife species. It is the most abundant ingredient of the animal body in all phases of growth and development. A calf's body contains 75 to 80% water at birth and about 55 to 65% water at maturity. While animals can survive for a week or more without food, death is likely in a matter of days without adequate water intake. Water is involved either directly or indirectly in virtually every physiologic process essential to life. Water is the medium in which all chemical reactions in the body take place. Blood, which contains 80% water, is vital in transporting oxygen to the tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues as well as being the life support system for the body. It is the medium for transporting nutrients, metabolic wastes, and chemical messengers, such as hormones, throughout the body. It provides the chemical base for nutrient digestion and uptake from the GI tract and for the elimination of waste products via urine and bile. Water's physical properties make it an important factor in the transfer of heat and the regulation of temperature in the body. Due to its high specific heat (the ability to absorb or give off heat with a relatively small change in temperature), water is ideally suited as a temperature buffering system for the body. A restriction of water intake lowers feed intake and N retention (i.e. protein), and it increases N loss in the feces. It also results in increased excretion of urea in the urine. Animals may survive a loss of nearly all the fat and about one-half of bodily protein, but a loss of about one-tenth of water from the body results in death.
Water is the single most important nutrient for livestock and big game wildlife species. It is the most abundant ingredient of the animal body in all phases of growth and development. A calf's body contains 75 to 80% water at birth and about 55 to 65% water at maturity. While animals can survive for a week or more without food, death is likely in a matter of days without adequate water intake. Water is involved either directly or indirectly in virtually every physiologic process essential to life. Water is the medium in which all chemical reactions in the body take place. Blood, which contains 80% water, is vital in transporting oxygen to the tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues as well as being the life support system for the body. It is the medium for transporting nutrients, metabolic wastes, and chemical messengers, such as hormones, throughout the body. It provides the chemical base for nutrient digestion and uptake from the GI tract and for the elimination of waste products via urine and bile. Water's physical properties make it an important factor in the transfer of heat and the regulation of temperature in the body. Due to its high specific heat (the ability to absorb or give off heat with a relatively small change in temperature), water is ideally suited as a temperature buffering system for the body. A restriction of water intake lowers feed intake and N retention (i.e. protein), and it increases N loss in the feces. It also results in increased excretion of urea in the urine. Animals may survive a loss of nearly all the fat and about one-half of bodily protein, but a loss of about one-tenth of water from the body results in death.

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: University of Wyoming Extension on Sep 11, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/13/2014

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M. F. Raisbeck DVM, Ph.D.,
DABVT 
~ S. L. Riker, B.S. ~ C. M. Tate, D.V.M., Ph.D.R. Jackson, Ph.D. ~ M. A. Smith, Ph.D. ~ K. J. Reddy, Ph.D. ~ J. R. Zygmunt, B.S.
Water Qualityor Wyoming Livestock & Wildlie
A Review o the Literature Pertaining to Health Efects o Inorganic Contaminants
University of Wyoming Department of Veterinary Sciences,UW Department of Renewable Resources, Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality 
B-1183
 
Acknowledgements
Te authors would like to thank the Wyoming Department o Environmental Quality or providing the unding needed to complete the report and Louise Smithson and Rebecca Dailey rom the Wyoming State Veterinary Labora-tory and Robert Waggener, editor in the UW College o Agriculture, or the many hours they invested in editing. Wethank Bernadette van der Vliet, graphic designer in the College o Agriculture, or her work on layout and design. We would also like to acknowledge the ollowing colleagues who reviewed the report and oered constructive criticismand suggestions.Michelle Mostrom, D.V.M., M.S., Ph.D., DABVVeterinary oxicologist, North Dakota State University  John C. Reagor, M.S., Ph.D.Head, Diagnostic oxicology, exas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, exas A&M University Michael Carlson, M.S., Ph.D.oxicology Analytical Chemist and Lecturer, University o Nebraska-LincolnPatricia alcott, D.V.M., Ph.D., DABV Associate Proessor o Veterinary oxicology, Washington State University 
ii
 
iii
Abbreviations
 ADG – average daily gain As – arsenicBa – bariumBW – body weightC – CelsiusCNS – central nervous systemCp – ceruloplasminCu – copperDM – dry matterDMA – dimethylarsonous acidDMI – dry matter intakeECF – extracellular uidECG – electrocardiogramEPA – U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EU – European UnionF – FahrenheitF – uorineFDA – U.S. Food and Drug Administrationg – gramG.I. tract – gastrointestinal tractGSH – glutathioneHb – hemoglobinHDL – high-density lipoproteinHg – mercury H
2
S – hydrogen suldeIV intravenouskg – kilogramL – literlb – poundLD
50
– Dose which is lethal in 50% o the testedpopulationLD
0
– Largest non-lethal dose in tested population(theoretical)meq – milliequivalentMetHb – methemoglobinmg – milligrammM – millimoleMMA – monomethylarsonous acidMo – molybdenumM – metallothioneinN – nitrogenNa – sodiumnAChR nicotinic acetylcholine receptorNaCl – sodium chlorideNOAEL – no observed adverse eect levelNO
3-
– nitrateNO
2-
 
nitriteNRC – National Research CouncilPEM – polioencephalomalacia ppm – parts per millionppb – parts per billion% – percentROS – reactive oxygen speciesS – sulurSe – seleniumSOLD
50
– single oral median lethal dose
1/2
– biological hal-lieCA – trichloroacetic acidDS – total dissolved solidsM – thiomolybdatesUSDA – U.S. Department o Agriculture WSVL – Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory 

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