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Small Cases

Small Cases

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Published by: davisfc50 on Sep 12, 2012
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http://eth.sagepub.com
Ethnography
DOI: 10.1177/14661381080995862009; 10; 5
Ethnography 
Mario Luis Small
in field-based research `How many cases do I need?': On science and the logic of case selection
http://eth.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/10/1/5
 
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Ethnography 
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at Uni BO on February 25, 2009http://eth.sagepub.comDownloaded from
 
‘How many cases do I need?’
On science and the logic of case selection infield-based research
I
Mario Luis Small
University of Chicago, USA
ABSTRACT
I
Today, ethnographers and qualitative researchers infields such as urban poverty, immigration, and social inequality face anenvironment in which their work will be read, cited, and assessed bydemographers, quantitative sociologists, and even economists. They alsoface a demand for case studies of poor, minority, or immigrant groups andneighborhoods that not only generate theory but also somehow speak to
empirical 
conditions in
other 
cases (not observed). Many have respondedby incorporating elements of quantitative methods into their designs, suchas selecting respondents ‘at random’ for small, in-depth interview projectsor identifying ‘representative’ neighborhoods for ethnographic casestudies, aiming to increase generalizability. This article assesses thesestrategies and argues that they fall short of their objectives. Recognizingthe importance of the predicament underlying the strategies – todetermine how case studies can speak empirically to other cases – itpresents two alternatives to current practices, and calls for greater clarityin the logic of design when producing ethnographic research in a multi-method intellectual environment.
KEY WORDS
I
ethnographic methods, generalizability,representativeness, validity, case study, sequential interviewing, extendedcase method, science
graphy
Copyright©TheAuthor(s),2009.Reprintsandpermissions:http://www.sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.navhttp://eth.sagepub.com Vol 10(1): 5–38[DOI: 10.1177/1466138108099586]
ARTICLE
 at Uni BO on February 25, 2009http://eth.sagepub.comDownloaded from 
 
Probably the most memorable of the lectures of Nobel-prize winning physi-cist Richard Feynman was his 1974 commencement address at Caltech,where he described what he calls ‘cargo cult science’. Feynman, worriedabout the preponderance of what he believes are pseudo-sciences, comparesthese practices to the cargo cults of the South Pacific:
In the South Seas there is a Cargo Cult of people. During the war they sawairplanes land with lots of good materials, and they want the same thing tohappen now. So they’ve arranged to make things like runways, to put firesalong the sides of the runways, to make a wooden hut for a man to sit in...[the controller] – and they wait for the airplanes to land. They’re doing every-thing right. The form is perfect. It looks exactly the way it looked before.But it doesn’t work. No airplanes land. So I call these things Cargo CultScience, because they follow all the apparent precepts and forms of scien-tific investigation, but they’re missing something essential, because the planesdon’t land. (Feynman, 1999: 208–9)
Feynman’s lecture was devoted largely to practices such as ESP, but the hintsabout social science were difficult to miss. (In fact, he criticized a psychol-ogist’s advice to his student not to replicate the studies of others.) Pseudo-scientists were expert imitators but terrible practitioners, adopting the formof science but nothing else. In this respect, his analogy might have beenstronger had he noted that some New Guinean cargo cultists had fashionedtheir own airplanes out of logs, sticks, and leaves, remarkably accuratereplicas that, lacking engines and a foundation in aerodynamics, wouldnever fly (Harris, 1974; Worsley, 1968).While Feynman probably underestimated the successes of social science,his observations are worth noting by at least one major segment of contem-porary ethnographers, for whom the temptations of imitation have neverbeen stronger. The problem of imitation is not new to social scientists, whofrom the start have argued heatedly (and repeatedly) over the merits of emulating the natural sciences in pursuit of social scientific methods(Dilthey, 1988; Lieberson and Lynn, 2002; Saiedi, 1993). But today, animportant subset of ethnographic researchers – and of qualitativeresearchers more generally – faces its
own
version of that dilemma: whetherto emulate basic principles in quantitative
social 
sciences in establishingstandards of evidence for qualitative work. Some background is necessary.
1
The predicament of ethnographic work in multi-method contexts
The predicament arises from what might seem to be an unqualified accom-plishment, the simmering of the counterproductive debates, which reacheda boiling point during the 1980s, over the relative merits of quantitative
Ethnography 
10(1)
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