Journal of Libertarian Studies2
The tendency of an advanced civilization is in truthMonarchy. Monarchy is indeed a government whichrequires a high degree of civilization for its full devel-opment. . . . An educated nation recoils from the imper-fect vicariate of what is called a representative govern-ment.
Democracy is, after all, the oldest form of government in whichmajorities rule over minorities.
Democracy reappeared in a more civilized form in Athens, butwhen, in a truly political trial, Socrates praised monarchy, he wascondemned to death.
Remember also that Madariaga said rightlythat our civilization rests on the death of two persons: a philosopherand the Son of God, both victims of the popular will. No wonderthat Plato, Socrates’s follower, and Aristotle, Plato’s disciple, werefierce mon-archists, and that the latter, when democracy returnedto Athens, went into exile to avoid Socrates’s fate.
Plato’s thesisthat democracy naturally evolves into tyranny was also adopted byPolybius, who believed in an
, a natural circular evolu-tionary process from monarchy into aristocracy, aristocracy intodemocracy, and democracy into tyranny. Indeed, reading Plato’s
, Books VIII–IX, one gets an exact description of thetransition from the Weimar Republic to National Socialist tyranny.
See Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield, K.G.,
Coningsby;or, The NewGeneration
(London: Longmans, Green, 1849), book V, ch. 8.
It is still preserved by aboriginies in various parts of the globe. You canfind the name of the ethnologists who have studied this phenomenon insome of my books. See, e.g., Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn,
Liberty or Equality?
(Front Royal: Christendom Press, 1993), p. 314 n. 474.
The political aspects of the death of Socrates can be found in the
, in the 1911 as well as in the most recent edition.Other authors are mentioned in Kuehnelt-Leddihn,
(Washington, D.C.: Regnery, 1989), p. 349 n. 47. Recently, I. F. Stone dealtwith the same subject from a leftist point of view in
The Trial of Socrates
(New York: Anchor Books, 1989). According to Stone, Socrates was a“fascist.”
In accordance with these leading philosophers of antiquity, ThomasAquinas maintained that democracy was the least bad of the three evilforms of government. Ochlocracy and tyranny, he argued, were worse.