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Application of Positional Statistics and Simulation Means to Alamouti MIMO Systems Analysis

Application of Positional Statistics and Simulation Means to Alamouti MIMO Systems Analysis

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Journal of Telecommunications, ISSN 2042-8839, Volume 13, Issue 1, March 2012 http://www.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk
Journal of Telecommunications, ISSN 2042-8839, Volume 13, Issue 1, March 2012 http://www.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk

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JOURNAL OF TELECOMMINUCATION, VOLUME 13, ISSUE 1, MARCH 2012
© 2012 JOTwww.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk
44
Application of Positional Statistics and Simulation Meansto Alamouti MIMO Systems Analysis
 
Józef Pawelec and Krzysztof Kosmowski
Abstract
– 
The two models of Alamouti MIMO2x2 system have been formed: the analytical and digital one. Thefirst model is simple and reflects the quasi-static Rayleigh fading, the second one is advanced and processes thefast fading effects. The results of analysis and simulations show that Alamouti MIMO architecture over performsthe SISO systems mainly in the quasi-static environment.
 
Index Terms
-
MIMO systems, Alamouti technique, fast fading, Nakagami model, cross-correlation
---------------------------------
-------------------------------
1
.
I
NTRODUCTION
 N this paper an extra simple model of theAlamouti architecture has been formed on the basis of the positional statistics. It works well for aquasi-static Rayleigh environment. For Nakagamifast fading, accompanying mobile scenario, thedigital computer model has to be build. Its detailsare given elsewhere [1]. The goal of this paper is tocarry out the simulation experiments and to definethe real gains of the Alamouti architecture incomparison with conventional SISO systems for different environment scenarios.
2
.
AYLEIGH FADING
M
ODEL
The two transmitting and two receiving antennaeAlamouti scheme is considered throughout this paper. Hence, four individual space channels areformed. At the beginning it is supposed that all thesechannels are uncorrelated and subjected to quasi-static Rayleigh fading. Then the probability densityfunctions of the signal-to-noise power ratio are asfollows
00
//10
)(,)(
γ γ γ γ 
γ γ γ 
==
e F e f  
(1)where
γ
is the current value of SNR and
γ
o
is itsmean;
 f( 
γ 
 )
and
 F( 
γ 
 )
are the probability densitydistribution- and cumulative density distributionfunctions, respectively. _____________________
 
 J. Pawelec is with the Pulaski University of Technology, Radom and Military Communication’s Institute.
• 
K. Kosmowski is with the Militery Communication’s Institute, Poland.
For the selection combining diversity system theresultant probability density function for the
m
-thchannel,
 f 
m
γ 
|N)
can be derived on the basis of the positional statistics [2]
 
m N mm
 F  F  xm N m  f   N  N   f  
=
)](1)[( )!()!1( )(!)|(
1
γ γ γ γ 
(2)
 
where
 N 
is the total number of channels (a diversityorder).The formula for the best channel
m=N 
is then asfollows
1//00
)1()|(
00
=
 N  N 
ee N  f  
γ γ γ γ 
γ γ γ 
(4)Taking a mean of the error probability for a givenmode of keying, e.g. DPSK, in respect to the densitydistribution function (4), we can obtain the resultantBER formula for the best channel as follows [3]
 ∫ 
=
++
==
=
10001//00
111)1(2)1(5.0)(
00
 N  N  N 
 N  N eee  N  P 
γ γ γ γ 
γ γ γ γ  γ 
(5)These same probabilities for the second best andother channels are incomparable, so they will beneglected with regard to (5). The final results for 
 N=1
(SISO) and
 N=4
(MIMO) are as follows
 
JOURNAL OF TELECOMMINUCATION, VOLUME 13, ISSUE 1, MARCH 2012
© 2012 JOTwww.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk
45
42362612)(221)(
0000 04001
+
+++
+=+=
γ γ γ γ  γ γ γ 
 P  P 
(6)
05101520253010
-6
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
SNR (dB)
     B     E     R
SISO, m=0.65SISO, m=1, P1SISO, m=2SISO, m=3MIMO, m=0.65MIMO, m=1, P4 Alamouti,simulationMIMO, m=2, m=3P1P4MIMOSISO
Fig
.1. Calculated (
 P 
1
 ,
4
)
 
and simulated BER curves vs.SNR for SISO and MIMO systems, F
D
T
S
=0.01
 It should be noted that the original Alamoutiarchitecture operates under maximum ratiocombining (MRC). However, the difference betweenthe selection combining and MRC is small enough incomparison with the channel movement effects andother environmental factors.For example, the discrepancy between calculated
 P 
4
γ 
0
 )
and the corresponding simulated curve do notexceed 1 dB, see Fig.1. This same conclusion refersto the difference between keying modes, PSK andDPSK.
3
.
S
IMULATION
P
ROCEDURE
The Monte Carlo method has been applied for simulation experiments. The system model has beendeveloped in a similar manner as it is done in [4] for the Rayleigh case. The proper random sources,statistical relations and processing functions have been selected. The exact Doppler spreading, EDS,has been used as a basic operation [5].The two normalized fading bandwidth wereconsidere, F
D
T
S
=
 
0.01 and F
D
T
S
=0.1, where F
D
isDoppler bandwidth and T
S
– time duration of thesignal symbol. The state F
D
T
S
=0.01 corresponds tothe very slow movement of objects within the signal path, while the state F
D
T
S
=0.1 corresponds to thefast movement. The last one causes multiplicativeinterference and the so-called floor effect on BER characteristics.Instead of commonly used Rayleigh distributionof fades, the more general Nakagami-
m
model has been adapted and applied [5]. This stems from thefact that numerical papers report significantdepartures of the physical processes from Rayleighdistribution [7], [7].The following values of the fading depth
 
 parameter and the cross-correlation coefficient wereused,
m
= [0.65, 1, 2, 3] and
=[0, 0.5, 0.7]. Thedetails are specified in [1].
4
.
Q
UASI-IDEAL
C
HARACTERISTICS
In the first step, the conditions close to an idealenvironment were assumed, i.e. the cross-correlationwas completely excluded and the extremely slowmovement of objects within the channels wassupposed by the restriction of F
D
T
S
=0.01. The BER characteristics, both for SISO and MIMO are shownin Fig.1 (black and red lines, respectively). TheRayleigh case for 
m
= 1 is also singled out bydashed lines (eq. 6) .
We can see that MIMO inquasi-static environment over performs SISO bymore than 20 dB beneath the BER=10
-3
. It is alsoevident that the depth of fading - parameter 
m
-affects considerably the BER characteristics,especially for SISO group. This confirms the earlier objections on the unsuitability of the Rayleighmodel for fading analysis.
5
.
M
OVEMENT
E
FFECTS
The next group of characteristics refers to the fastmovement scenario and is shown in Fig.2. Thenormalized fading bandwidth has been set toF
D
T
S
=0.1. The other parameters remain unchanged.One can see, that characteristics have changedmuch in reference to Fig.1. A new phenomenonappeared: the irreducible error zone (floor effect).This is a result of the multiplicative interferencecaused by the moving objects within the channel(cars, trees, persons). In a consequence, the phase of signal is changed during the symbol frame, whichcauses additional errors, independently on noise.As we can see, that MIMO system is moresensitive to the movement parameters than SISO.
MIMO over performs SISO only for a low rangeof SNR.
Above the threshold of ~20 dB the SISO
 
JOURNAL OF TELECOMMINUCATION, VOLUME 13, ISSUE 1, MARCH 2012
© 2012 JOTwww.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk
46
offers lower error rates than MIMO, especially for non deep fading (
m
2).The floor effect is a serious harmful phenomenon. There is no cheap and effectivecountermeasure against it, except for the reductionof the transmission rate. Sometimes additionalantennas or more advanced strategies of receptionare proposed, e.g. minimum mean square error (MMSE) or maximum likelihood space time(MLST) [6], [9].
05101520253010
-6
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
SNR (dB)
     B     E     R
SISO, m=0.65SISO, m=1, P1SISO, m=2SISO, m=3MIMO, m=0.65MIMO, m=1MIMO, m=3SISOMIMOMIMO
 
SIMULATION DATA
Fig.2. BER curves for SISO and MIMO systems in mobileenvironment, F
D
T
S
=0.1,
=0
 
6
.
J
OINT
A
CTION OF
T
WO
F
ACTORS
The cross-correlation generally makes a little effecton BER in the quasi-static environment. Thecorrelation of 
=0.5 at
m
=3 causes losses - inreference to the uncorrelated case - of the order of 1dB at the level of BER=10
-6
, while the correlation of 
=0.7 increases these losses to ~2 dB [8]. The jointeffect of cross-correlation and mobility (F
D
T
S
=0.1)is, however, more distinct, see Fig. 3.The BER for 
m
=3 and
=0 is the same as in Fig.2(the lowest curve). However, as far as the cross-correlation or the depth of fading or both areincreasing, the probability of error rate also fastincreases.
In the worst case of fading (
 D
 S 
0.1,
0.7, m
 
0.65), the BER 
min
10
-3
independentlyon SNR 
.This is a very poor result. Fortunately, in the realworld F
D
T
S
<0.1, so the BER may get better values, but it is worth to note, that a coincidence of two or more severe circumstances can seriously deterioratethe Alamouti MIMO system performance [9].
 
05101520253010
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
SNR (dB)
        B        E        R
r=0.7, m=0.65r=0.5, m=0.65r=0.0, m=0.65r=0.7, m=3r=0.5, m=3r=0.0, m=3Cross-correlationm = 3m = 0.65
 
Fig.3. BER curves for MIMO system in presence of cross-correlation and movement, 0
 
 
0.7, F
D
T
S
=0.1
7
.
C
ONCLUSION
An extra simple model of the Alamouti MIMO 2x2antenna system operating under slow Rayleighfading was presented. It is based on the theory of  positional statistics and it defines the coarsecharacteristics for a quasi-static environment. Thefast fading environments were modeled via MonteCarlo simulation. It was found that Alamouti systemis highly sensitive to the fast fading conditions. Itslarge gain starts to drop at the normalized fading bandwidth of the order of F
D
T
S
=0.1. If the depth of this fading is high,
m <
1 and the coefficient of cross-correlation exceeds
= 0.7, the lowest possibleerror rate of the Alamouti 2x2 antennas system canreach merely the level of BER=10
-3
, independentlyon SNR!
The general conclusion is that Alamoutiarchitecture is suitable mainly for the in-doorquasi-static environments
.
EFERENCES
[1]
 
K. Kosmowski and J. Pawelec „Efficiency of STBC in Nakagami-
m
Channels”,
in Proc. of  KKRRiT,
Pozna
ń
, June 8-10, 2011 (pp. 365-369)[2]
 
M. Fisz,
 Probability Calculus and Statistics,
StatePublishing Institute, Warsaw 2000 (pp.210-216)[3]
 
J. Pawelec, “Positional Statistics and MIMO”,
in Proc. of MCC 
, Amsterdam, October 16-19, 2011[4]
 
 N. Beaulieu and C. Cheng, “Efficient Nakagami-
m
 Fading Channel Simulation,”
 IEEE TV
no.2, 2005
[5]
 
M. Patzold et al., “On the Statistical Properties of Deterministic Simulation Models”,
 IEEE 
 
Transac.Vehicular Technology
, no. 1, pp. 297-310, 1998
 
[6]
 
H. Suzuki, “A Statistical Model for Urban RadioPropagation,”
 IEEE Trans. Com.
no. 7, July 1977

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