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T-H Differential Pseudo-Random Pulse: A New UWB System for LR-WPAN Applications

T-H Differential Pseudo-Random Pulse: A New UWB System for LR-WPAN Applications

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Journal of Telecommunications, ISSN 2042-8839, Volume 12, Issue 1, January 2012 http://www.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk
Journal of Telecommunications, ISSN 2042-8839, Volume 12, Issue 1, January 2012 http://www.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk

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Published by: Journal of Telecommunications on Sep 12, 2012
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JOURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 12, ISSUE 1, JANUARY 2012
T-H Differential Pseudo-Random Pulse: ANew UWB System for LR-WPAN Applications
N. Rebhi, A. Kachouri, M. Samet and D. Fournier Prunaret
Abstract
— Ultra Wide Band is a new technology that has received much attention for its peculiar advantages: high-bandwidth,extremely low power spectral density, propagation robust to fades, ability to penetrate materials, possibility to coexist in thesame spectrum with other modulation schemes. UWB Impulse Radio systems are particularly promising for short-range and lowbit rate wireless communications as they combine reduced complexity with multipath and multiuser capabilities. One of the mostimportant applications of UWB is Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN). Moreover a standard for such systems wasestablished by the IEEE802.15.4a group.
 
In this paper, a new ultra-wide-band modulation scheme so-called Time-HopingDifferential Pseudo Random Pulse (TH-DPRP) is presented, and evaluated on various IEEE 802.15.4a standard channelsmodels. Results show that TH-DPRP experience little degradation under multipath environments due to the simple transceiver,the detection principle, and the different
 
technical choice combined in this system.
Index Terms
— UltraWideBand, Impulse Radio, Pseudo-Random, Chaos, Spectrum, Multipath Channel, Correlation, LR-WPAN
——————————
 
u
 
——————————
1 I
NTRODUCTION
 
LTRAWIDEBAND (UWB) has emerges as one of themost important technology that has attracted a greatdeal of interest from academia, industry, and stand-ardization bodies. UWB can be traces back to 1960, when ismainly used to radar and military applications [1]. In theseyears, the UWB has been focused as a powerful wirelesstechnology which can realize home networks service. Ameasurement appropriate for UWB signals is the relative bandwidth
Bw
defined as following:
( )
 L H  L H 
 f   f   f   f   Bw
+
=
2
(1)
Where ƒ
H
and ƒ
L
are higher and lower edges of signalspectrum respectively.The most important even in the UWB technology wasset in April 2002 when the Federal Communication Com-mission (FCC) approved the first guidelines permitted un-licensed usage of UWB signals in wireless communicationsdevice within specified emission masks [2].Following the realize of the first report by the U.S. Fed-eral communications commission’s, a large available bandwidth of more than 7.5 GHZ is allocated for UWBapplications. U.S. FCC has released 3.1GHz to 10.6GHzfrequency spectrum with restriction on transmit powerspectral density (psd) of -41.3 dBm.MHZ
-1
.In accordance with these decisions, U.S. FCC ruled thatsignals with a relative bandwidth greater than 25% or aneffective bandwidth
!
ƒ=ƒ
H
L
exceeding 500 Mhz, artreated as ultra wideband signals. Accordingly, UWB bandwidth is much wider than any existing communica-tions systems.Communications via channels already occupied bconventional telecommunication systems and coexistenccan be established only by UWB radio where the spectrumof the transmitted signal covers an ultra-wide band, andthe frequency re-use is possible as a result of limiting thpsd. Moreover, the use of extremely large bandwidthprovides the ability to resolve multipath effects. The lowpower spectral density makes interception, detection, andinterference with existing narrowband systems difficult.Considering multiple access scenarios, the presence omultiple signals being transmitted at the same time is an-other typical source of interferences. An effort has beenmade to reduce the multiple access interference (MAI) bdesigning orthogonal hopping sequences. Hence, timHopping (TH) scheme combined with UWB communica-tion are used to avoid multiples access interference whichcan be reduced by increasing the number of time hops, buat the cost of reduced data rate.Consequently, UWB communication systems are opti-mized for low complexity, low power, low cost, and lorate wireless communication with the capability to overlaon existing frequency allocations. The unique characteris-tics of UWB radio make it a viable candidate for featurwireless communications, especially indoor wireless appli-cations. The IEEE standards association has specified twtypes of UWB systems: high rate (HR) and low rate (LR). Inparticular, the standardization effort within IEEE802.15.4aims for low rate wireless personal areas network (LR-WPAN) applications [3].Several schemes were proposed to meet the requirments of the IEEE802.15.4a standard. TH-UWB [4], Trans-
 ———————————————— 
 
 
N. Rebhi is with the Laboratory of Electronics and Technologies of Infor-mation (LETI) in the National School of Engineers, Sfax; B.P.W, 3038Sfax, Tunisia.
 
A. Kachouri is with the National School of Engineers Sfax; B.P.W, 3038Sfax, Tunisia.
 
 M. Samet is with the National School of Engineers Sfax; B.P.W, 3038 Sfax,Tunisia.
 
D. Fournier Prunaret is with National Institute for Applied Sciences, Tou-louse; 31077 Toulouse Cedex, France
U
© 2012 JOT
 
2
itted Reference (TR-UWB) [5], Frequency Hopping (FH-WB) [6], and Direct Sequence (DS-UWB) [7] schemes,herein orthogonal codes and radio pulses (Gaussian,seudo-random, chaotic, etc), are used to avoid multipleccess and multipath propagation.In this paper, we propose a new TH-TR-UWB modula-ion technique based on a pseudo random radio pulses andpseudo-noise (PN) code which can be modified for eachser. Time Hoping Differential Pseudo Random Pulse sys-em is mapped on a very simple transceiver structure. Theetection principle is ameliorated in order to greatly reducenterferences problems under multi-access and multi-pathsommunications in comparison with conventional schemes.The rest of this paper is organized as follows; the TH-PRP UWB scheme is developed and the transceiver block iagrams is mapped in section 2, BER performance in In-oor Residential and Office channel models are evaluated inection 3. Finally, this paper is concluded in section 4.
TH-DPRP
 
COMMUNICATION
 
SYSTEM
.1 Modulation of TH-DPRP
The DPRP scheme transmits a train of pulses per symbol.ach chip contains one pulse, and several chips construct aymbol S
i
{-1, +1}. Transmitted signal is divided into sym-ol time slots of duration T
S
 , which are sub-divided intohip time slots of duration T
C
. Then, each symbol is made upf N
C
chips, resulting a symbol time T
S
=N
C
.T
C
. Every chipas a code C
 
[-1, +1], for k=0… N
C
-1 randomly generat-d. The polarity of the data pulse is modulated by the prod-ct of the chip code and the pulse as presented in figure 1.o code information, the pseudo-random sequence {C
}
k=0..Nc-
is used to transmit a symbol dm= +1, and their orthogonalequence correspondent {(-1)
. C
}
k=0..Nc-1
is used to transmit aymbol dm= -1. The parameter m designs the m
th
symbol,hus, a single user DPRP transmitted signal can be modeledy the following equation:
)()()(
010
cimim N imi
kT  p s
=
=
=
(2)
)(
 p
m
is the transmitted pulse for each symbol expresseds follow.
)().()(
 sm
mT e p p
=
(3)
 
here e(t) is a rectangular pulse of unit amplitude and T
P
 duration as shown in (4):
=
elsewheree
,00,1)(
(4)
The block diagram of transmitting the m
th
symbol by thei
th
user is illustrated in figure 2, where cj, for j=1…N
C
 , substi-tute the following equation:
1...0...1
)(
==
=
iim N  j j
c
 
(5)
The transmitted signal propagates through a multipathchannel and result an output
r
mi
(t).
§
 
Time Hopping DPRP
It is very important to note that there is a certain delay in-terval between pulses of one symbol. The information ismodulated into pulse trains by introducing time hopping. Aguard interval, Tgp, was inserted between successive pulsesto avoid inter-pulses interference (IPI), and a guard intervalTgs, was inserted between symbols to avoid inter-symbolsinterference (ISI). Besides, the possible positions of pulseswithin a symbol follow a so-called time-hopping (TH) code.Thus, the transmitted pulses sequence is different for eachuser according to the TH code. This accommodates multipleaccess (MAI) interferences and improves security.
§
 
Time Hopping DCRP
If the pseudo-random pulse has a chaotic behavior; ex-treme sensitivity to initial conditions, fractal structure of theattractor, unpredictable state in the future, etc…, particular-ly in this case, this scheme can be called Time-Hopping Dif-ferential chaotic Radio Pulse (TH-DCRP).Chaotic and pseudo-random pulses have a same numberof features that makes them attractive for use in UWB com-munication systems as carrier such as wideband spectrum,auto, and cross correlation properties. Furthermore, chaoticsignals is deterministic, it can be generated in variety wave-forms directly in the frequency band desired by simplestructure devices leading to a low cost of the product. Cha-otic modes can be tailored by small variations of the systemparameters, i.e., due to sensitive dependence of chaos uponinitial conditions, a large number of spreading waveformscan easily be produced. The spectra properties of chaoticsignals can be controlled to satisfy the FCC regulations.Assume that for both cases, each user has a specific code
ig. 1. The transmitted signal form (example N
C
=4)Fig. 2. Block diagram of the TH-DPRP transmitter
r
mi
(t)s
mi
(t)p
m
(t)c
3
 c
N
c
 
H-DD em o d  ul   a t   o M ul   t  i   a t   C ann el  
TTTc
2
 
 
c
1
 
1 Symbol
C
0
=1
1 Chip
TTT-TC=-1C=1 C
3
=1
 
 
PN, and a pseudo-random or a chaotic signal. This providesrobustness to multi-users and inter-symbols interferences.
2.2 Demodulation of TH-DPRP
Transmitted signals arrive at the receiver in distortedwaveforms; this degradation is caused by effects of the mul-tipath channel propagation. In multipath channel radiopulses travel many paths and arrive at the receiver fromdifferent directions with different delays; on the way theyundergo attenuation, fading, and interferences. In the inputthey are summed. Assume that channel distortion is alsodue to a noise source n(t), which is an additive white Gauss-ian noise (AWGN) with a two-side power spectral densityof No/2. Thus, the received signal after propagationthrough the channel is calculated as convolution of thetransmitted signal with the channel response h(t) as illus-trate in (6). Where
represent the convolution operator.
)()()()(
nh s
ii
+
=
(6)
In order to overcome temporal and special channel varia-tions, a consecutive chip by chip recovered signal method based on a specific user code is proposed. In other word, forone symbol, each two chips consecutives will be correlated between them. The orthogonal code {C
}
k=0..Nc-1
serves as auser specific code, known to both the transmitter and thereceiver. This code is used as shown in Figure 3 mappingthe structure of the receiver.For one-user case, the decision Z
m
provided by the outputof the detector can be expressed as follows (7). Then, thedecision will be (+1) if Z
m
>0 or (-1) if Z
m
<0.
( ) ( )
( )
dt  z 
c sc sc
mT kT mT cimim N m
∫ 
+++
=+
=
1201
(7)
This detection approach is very important since onesymbol is recovered after (Nc-1) consecutives-inter-pulsescorrelation. Therefore, the channel effects are lower betweeneach two consecutives pulses which increase the bit errorrate performance. This makes the TH-DPRP receiver per-forms much better under severe multipath channels thanconventional non-coherent UWB-TR receivers in which eachdata-modulated chip is correlated with the same referencechip [8], [9].
2.3 UWB signal generation
UWB regulations determined only the maximum emis-sion limit and minimum bandwidth without say nothinabout the type of carrier and method which should be usedto generate UWB carrier. So any kind of carriers may bused including impulse, chirp, pseudo-random, and chao[10], [11], [12]. Among techniques found in the literature,unified model which is equally valid for communicationwith fixed, chaotic and random carrier is developed in [13].For fixed waveform communications, the same waveformare transmitted if the same symbol is transmitted repeated-ly. In chaotic and random communications the transmittedwaveforms are continuously varying. One of the main ad-vantages of this model is the facility to control spectra prop-erties that satisfied the UWB emission mask.Let use x
n
(t) as the n
th
basic function, exploiting the Fou-rier series representation on a time interval t (0<t<T), wobtained (8).
=
+
=
21
2sin2cos)(
qnk qnk qn
 x
π  β π α 
(8)
Where
qnk 
α 
and
qnk 
 β 
representing the Fourier coefficientobtained from (9), and (10).
dt  x
qnqnk 
=
 ∫ 
π  α 
2cos)(2
0
(9)
dt  x
qnqnk 
=
 ∫ 
π  β 
2sin)(2
0
(10)
The upper index (q) indicates that basis functions are nonecessarily constants. In the case of chaotic and random basis functions,
qnk 
α 
and
qnk 
 β 
 become random variables.
( ) ( )
212;212
0201
+=+
=
 B f   B f  
 
(11
)
Constants k 
1
and k 
2
, given by (11) respectively, are determined by the lower and upper frequencies of the bandwidth (
 Bw
=2B) with a center frequency ƒ
0
.
2.4 Multipath Immunity
The propagation in multipath channel gives two maineffects which are signals fading and interferences (IPI, ISIand MAI). These factors are considered in our proposedUWB communication system, and several choices as takento avoid these problems. Accordingly, TH-DPRP schem belongs to transmitted-reference (TR) family. A time hop-ping pseudo random pulses are transmitted, accordingcertain PN code which can be modified for each user, andrecovered by a non-coherent reception technique. Next wdetailed these entire TH-DPRP scheme bases.1.
 
Pseudo-random carrier
: a property of pseudo-random(as well as chaotic) signal with 2 GHz bandwidth is thasignals on different paths, with relative delay above
"
d(autocorrelation time), at the receiver input are mostluncorrelated and are summed not by amplitude but benergy. That means that adding paths always leads tan increase of received signal level. Thus, multipath en-vironment can act as an amplifier, and this may to com- bat fading signals.
Fig. 3. Block diagram of the TH-DPRP receiver
CNc-3CNc-2 CNc-2CNc-1
 
r
mi
(t)
 ∫ 
p
τ 
 
TcTcTcZm
 
C1C2 C0C1 
 ∫ 
p
τ 
 
 p
τ 
 
 p
τ 
 
 

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