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Exam 1

Exam 1

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 EMSE 201 — Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering 4 May 2005 Name:
 
SOLUTION
 
 Department of Materials Science and Engineering
1 of 11
Case Western Reserve University
 
Final Exam —
180 minutes; 288 points; 11 questions; 11 pages; 25% of course grade
 
 No calculators or formula sheets are allowed.
Where numerical answers are requested, full credit willbe given for correctly
setting up
the calculation and for specifying the correct
units
.1)
(10 points)
Austenite is slightly denser than martensite. Use this fact to
explain
 
why
it is difficult toconvert large or thick steel parts into martensite.
For thick cross-sections of material, there will be temperature gradients(2 pts) during the quench. This means that the less rapidly quenched inner sections willtransform to martensite later than the more rapidly quenched outer sections(2 pts).It also means that the degree of the martensite transformation (0% to 100%) willvary with time and with distance from the surface during the quenching(2 pts).Because the austenite-to-martensite transformation entails an increase in volume(2 pts), the regions that have transformed will be under compression, and the regionsthat are still austenite will be in tension(3 pts). These stresses may be enough tocrack the brittle martensitic portions of the part(2 pts)or to plastically deform theductile austenitic portions(2 pts). (Up to 5 pts extra credit as shown.)
2) Use the diagram at right to
specify a heat treatment 
(temperature(s) and time(s)) thatwould impart the followingmicrostructures to eutectoid steel:a)
(4 points)
100% fine pearlite
For each step:2 ptstime +2 ptsT. For a) and b): Start from 100%austenite above the eutectoidtemperature (1 pt).For part a): Anything past the 100%curve in the lower part of the Pfield,
e.g.
10 s at 560 °C
b)
(10 points)
50% coarse pearlite, 25%bainite, 25% martensite
1
st
step: Hold at the 50% curve inthe upper part of the P field,
e.g.
100 s at 680 °C2
nd
step: Rapidly cool to, and hold at,a temperature at the 50% curve inthe bainite field,
e.g.
10 s at 450 °C
.
3
rd
step: Quench to below 100 °C.
 
 EMSE 201 — Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering 4 May 2005 Department of Materials Science and Engineering
2 of 11
Case Western Reserve University
 3) An electrochemical cell is set up at 25 °C with one electrode of pure zinc immersed in a solution of Zn
2+
ions, and the other electrode of pure chromium in a solution of Cr
3+
ions. Data from thestandard EMF series relevant to this problem are given below:Electrode reactionStandard electrodepotential, V° (Volts)
O
2
+
2
 H 
2
O
+
4
e
 –
 !" ! 
4(
OH 
 –
)
+0.401
Cr
3
+
+
3
e
 –
 !" ! 
Cr
–0.744
 Zn
2
+
+
2
e
 –
 !" ! 
 Zn
–0.763a)
(4 points)
If the two solutions are 1.0 M in their respective metals, compute the
voltage
that isgenerated.
Which metal will corrode?
 
More anodic species have lower (or more negative) V°
Zn will corrode(2 pts) Writing the Zn half-cell reaction in reverse and scaling it to balance electrons:
Cr
3
+
+
32
 Zn
 !" ! 
Cr
+
32
 Zn
2
+
 
= –0.744 – (–0.763) +0.019 V(2 pts) 
b)
(10 points)
Suppose that the two solutions have negligible concentrations of dissolved salts butdifferent concentrations of dissolved oxygen. To cause the electrochemical reaction to run in the
opposite
direction from that of part a), which side of the cell must have a
higher 
concentration of dissolved oxygen? Write the resulting
half-cell reactions.
Briefly
 justify
your answer.
In oxygen concentration cells, oxygen reduction (
e.g.
the first reaction listed inthe table above) will proceed to a greater extent on the side of the cell with thehigher concentration of dissolved oxygen(3 pts), driven by the tendency toequalize the oxygen concentrations on both sides of the cell. This makes that sideof the cell the cathode (
i.e.,
where electrons are consumed, per the oxygenreduction reaction as written in the table)(1 pt)and the other side of the cell theanode (
i.e.
where electrons are generated)(1 pt).In part a), Zn is the anode. To reverse the direction of the reaction in part a), theoxygen concentrations must be such as to make Zn the cathode and Cr the anode.Therefore, the concentration of dissolved oxygen would need to be higher on theZn side of the cell(3 pts). In summary(1 ptfor each reaction): cathode reaction:
O
2
+
2
 H 
2
O
+
4
e
 –
 !" ! 
4(
OH 
 –
)
+0.401anode reaction:
43
Cr
 !" ! 
43
Cr
3
+
+
4
e
 –
–(–0.744)Note: the half-cell reaction
 Zn
2
+
+
2
e
 –
 !" ! 
 Zn
can occur at the high-oxygenelectrode if there is a source of Zn
2+
ions on that side of the cell. Here theconditions specified that the concentrations of dissolved salts on both sides ofthe cell were negligible.
 
 EMSE 201 — Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering 4 May 2005 Department of Materials Science and Engineering
3 of 11
Case Western Reserve University
 4)
(24 points)
Briefly
describe
the mechanisms underlying the following corrosion phenomena and
identify
which of the eight types of corrosion is chiefly responsible for each.a) A thin coating of zinc protects underlying plain carbon steel from corrosion.
With no electrical barrier between the Zn and the steel, they form a galvaniccouple(3 pts). Because zinc is below iron in the standard emf series (as discussedin lecture and the reading), zinc will be the anode(1 pt)and will therefore beoxidized, while steel will be the cathode and therefore will be kept in a reducedstate(1 pt). This is a case of exploiting galvanic corrosion (3 pts) of the zinc to protect thesteel. In fact, steel treated this way is said to be “galvanized.”Note that the zinc layer provides more than just a barrier to corrosion of thesteel. Even where the steel might be exposed, for example at a scratch throughthe zinc coating, the corrosion of the zinc provides electrons to the steel to keepit reduced (
i.e,
in the metallic form rather than oxidized).
b) A metal bar, after being bent as shown atright and immersed in seawater, exhibitscracking preferentially at the bend.
The bar is under stress, and thestress is highest at the bend(2pts). The stored elastic(1 pt)and plastic(1 pt)energy will be highestthere, as will the dislocationdensity(2 pts).This leads toenhanced corrosion at the bend(2pts), with subsequent weakeningand cracking. This is a case ofstress corrosion(3 pts; 8 pts max).
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