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Steam Turbine Fresh

Steam Turbine Fresh

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Published by POWERBOOKONE
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Published by: POWERBOOKONE on Sep 12, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/30/2013

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The Steam Turbine
Page 1
 
STEAM TURBINE
1.
 
INTRODUCTION
A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermalenergy from pressurized steam, and converts it into rotary motion. Itsmodern manifestation was invented by Sir Charles Parsons in 1884.Definitions of 
steam turbine:
y
 
turbine in which steam strikes blades and makes them turn
y
 
 A
steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into rotary motion. Its modern manifestationwas invented by Sir Charles Parsons in 1884.
y
 
 A
system of angled and shaped blades arranged on a rotor through which steamis passed to generate rotational energy. Today, normally used in power stations
y
 
 A
device for converting energy of high-pressure steam (produced in a boiler) intomechanical power which can then be used to generate electricity.
y
 
Eq
uipment unit flown through by steam, used to convert the energy of the steaminto rotational energy.
 
A machine for generating mechanical power in rotary motion from theenergy of steam at temperature and pressure above that of an availablesink. By far the most widely used and most powerful turbines are thosedriven by steam. Until the 1960s essentially all steam used in
turbine cycles
 was raised in boilers burning fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gas) or, in minorquantities, certain waste products. However, modern turbine technologyincludes nuclear steam plants as well as production of steam supplies fromother sources.The illustration shows a small, simple mechanical-drive turbine of afew
horsepower
. It illustrates the essential parts for all steam turbinesregardless of rating or complexity: (1) a casing, or shell, usually divided atthe horizontal center line, with the
halves
bolted together for ease of assemblyand disassembly; it contains the stationary blade system; (2) a rotorcarrying the moving buckets (blades or vanes) either on wheels or drums,with bearing journals on the ends of the rotor; (3) a set of bearings attachedto the casing to support the shaft; (4) a governor and valve system forregulating the speed and power of the turbine by controlling the steam flow,and an oil system for lubrication of the bearings and, on all but the smallestmachines, for operating the control valves by a relay system connected with
 
The Steam Turbine
Page 2
 
the governor; (5) a coupling to connect with the driven machine; and (6)pipe connections to the steam supply at the inlet and to an
exhaust
system atthe outlet of the casing or shell.Steam turbines are ideal prime movers for driving machines requiringrotational mechanical input power. They can deliver constant or variablespeed and are capable of close speed control. Drive applicationsinclude centrifugal pumps, compressors, ship propellers, and, mostimportant, electric generators.
Steam Turbines Basics
Though "Steam Turbines" might sound like a technical term, most of the things we do everyday would be impossible to do without this wonderfultechnology in power generation. Nature does not have sockets from wherepower plants pull out electricity to run your laptop or charge your iPod!Energy needs to be converted to electricity or electrical energy, from itsnatural occurrences. Steam Turbines are devices that help in the productionof electricity, by converting mechanical energy into useful electrical energy!The Steam Turbine was invented by Parson, more than a century ago, and ithas gone through numerous changes to become an effective powergenerator in today's power plants.
 
The Steam Turbine
Page 3
 
2
.
 
THE MODERN STEAM TURBINE
The steam turbine continues to be a major factor in electric powergeneration throughout the world. Even nuclear plants use the heat from acontrolled nuclear chain reaction to produce needed steam. In the United States,more than 88 percent of all electricity is produced by steam turbines
Steam is no remnant of the Industrial Revolution. Even nuclear power plants employ steamtechnology.
As mentioned earlier, there are basically three stages of matter: Solid, liquidand gas. Each stage is held together by a different level of molecular force.With water, gaseous steam takes up space due to its molecules being furthestapart. However, when enough pressure is applied to steam, an amazing thinghappens. The molecules are forced together to the point that the water becomesmore like a liquid again, while retaining the properties of a gas. It is at this pointthat it becomes a supercritical fluid.Many of today's power plants use supercritical steam, with pressure andtemperature at the critical point. This means supercritical steam power plantsoperate at much higher temperatures and pressures than plants using subcriticalsteam. Water is actually heated to such a high pressure that boiling does not evenoccur.The resulting high-pressure fluid of supercritical steam provides excellentenergy efficiency. With the aid of high pressure, supercritical steam turbines canbe driven to much higher speeds for the same amount of heat energy astraditional steam power. They also release less CO2 exhaust into the atmosphere.Additionally, new high-pressure boilers built with rocket technology are beingdeveloped to further control the levels of CO2 emitted. Some boilers will even coolthe steam back into a liquid and channel it into the ground to capture emissions.

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