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IPR Para Pozos con Gas en Solucion

IPR Para Pozos con Gas en Solucion

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PRODUCTIONESTIMATION@A
InflowPerformanceRelationshipsforSolution-GasDriveWells
Jo
V.VOGELMEMBERAIME
Abstract
Itscalculatingoilwellproduction,ithascommonlybeenassumedthatproducingratesareproportionaltodraw-downs.Usingthi,sassumptimt,awellsbehaviorcanbedescribedbyitsproductivityindex(Pi).ThisPIrelation-shipwasdevelopedfromDarcyslawforthesteady-stateradialflowojasingle,incompressiblefhid.AlthoughMuskatpointedouttha~therelationshipisnotvalidwhenbothoilandgasjiowinareservoir,itsusehascontinuedforlackofbetterapproximations,Gilbertproposedmeth-odsofwellanalysisutilizingacurveofproducingratesplottedagainstbot!om-holewellpressures;hetermedthiscompletegraphrheinfiowperformancerelatiorsship(IPR)ofawell.The
calculations
necessarytocomputeIPRsfromtwo-phmefiowtheorywereextremelytediousbejoreadventofthecomputer.Usingmachinecomputations,IPRcurveswerecalculatedforwellsproducingfromseveralfictitioussolution-gasdrivereservoirsthatco>eredawiderangeO!oilPVTpropertiesandreservoirrelativepermeabilitychar-acteristics.Welswithhydraulicfractureswerealsoin-cluded.Fromthesecurves..areferenceIPRcurvewasdevelopedthatissimpletoapplyand,itisbelieved,canheusedformostsolution-gasdrivereservoirstoprovidemoreaccuratecalculationsforoilwellproductivitythancanbesecuredwithPImethods.Fieldverificationi.sneeded.
Introduction
Incalculatingtheproductivityofoilwells,itiscornmonlyassumedthatinflowintoawellisdirectlypro-portionaltothepressuredifferential,betweenthereservoirandthewellborethatproductionisdirectlypropor-tionaltodrawdown.TheconstantofproportionalityisthePI,derivedfromDarcyslawforthesteady-staterad-ialflowofasingle,incompressiblefluid.Forcasesinwhichthisrelationshipholds,aplotoftheproducingratesvsthecorrespondingbottom-holepressuresresultsinastraightline(Fig.1),ThePIofthewellistheinverseoftheslopeofthestraightline.However,Muskatpointedoutthatwhentwo-phaseliquidandgasflowexistsinareservoir,thisrelationshipshouldnotbeexpectedtohold;hepresentedtheoreticalcalculationstoshowthatgraphsofproducingratesvsbottom-holepressuresfortwo-phaseflowresultedincurvedratherthanstraightlines,Whencurvatureexists,
OriginalmatmacriptreceivedinSocietyofPetroleumEngln*rso~@eJuly11,1966.RevisedmanuscriptreaekdDec.S,
1967.PaPer(SPE1476)waepresentedat
SPE41stAnnualFallMeetbraheldinDallas,Tex,,Oot,2.5,ISSC.@CbRyrlght1S6S
American
InstituteofMinims,Metallurgical,andPetroleumErrsineers,k,preferencesgivenatendofpapsr.ThispaperwillbeprintedhrTransactionsVolume24L3,whichwillcover196S.
JANUARY,19611
SHELLOILCO.BAKERSFIELD,CALIF,
awellcannotbesaidtohaveasinglePIbecausethevalueoftheslopevariescontinuouslywiththevariationindrawdown,Forthisreason,Gilbertproposedmethodsofwellanalysisthatcouldutilizethewholecurveofproducingratesplottedagainstintakepressures.Hetermedthiscompletegraphtheinflowperformarwerelationship(IPR)ofawell.Althoughthestraight-lineapproximation.isknowntohavelimitationswhenappliedtottio-phasetlowinthereservoir,itstillisusedprimarilybecausenosimplesub-stitisteshavebeenavailable:ThecalculationsnecessarytocomputeIPRsfromtwo-phaseflowtheoryhavebeenextremelytedious.However,recentlytheapproximationsofWelledforasolution-gasdriver~.servoirwerepro-grammedforcomputers.Thesolutior,invoivedthefol-lowingsimplifyingassumptions:(1)ihereservoiriscir-cularandcompletelyboundedwitht.completelypene-tratingwellatitscenter;(2)theporousmediumisuniformandisotropicwithaconstantwatersaturationatallpoints;(3)gravityeffectscanbeneglected(4)compressibilityofrockandwritercanbeneglected(5)thecompositionandequilibriumareconstantfor<oiland,gas(6)thesamepressureexistsinboththeoilandgasphasexand(7)thesemisteady-stateassumptionthatthetank-oildesaturationrateisthesameatallpointsatagiveninstant.Wellerssolutiondidnotrequirethecon-stant-GORassumption.TheresultingcomputerprogramprovedconvenienttouseandgaveresultscloselyapproachingthosefurnishedbythemorecomplicatedmethodofWest,GarvinandSheldon.Theprogramalsoincludestheuniquefeature
\
MAKIMUM
Ps4nwclnsSATE,bwd
Fig.l—Straight-lineinflowperformancerelationship.
 
ofmakingcompleteIPRpredictionsforareservoir.$mchpredictionsforatypicalsolution-gasdrivereservoirareshownasafamilyofIPRcur:sonFig.2.Notethattheyconfirmtheexistenceofcurkdure.Uappearedthatifseveralsolution-gas“drivereservoirswereexaminedwiththeaidofthisprogram,empiricalrelationshipsmightbeestablishedthatwouldapplytosolution-gasdrivereservoirsingeneral.Thisp&persum-marizestheresultsofsuchastudythatdealtwithseveralsimulatedreservoirscoveringawiderangeofconditions.Theseconditionsincludeddifferingcrudeoilcharacter-isticsanddifferingreservoirrelativepermwbiiitycharac-teristics,aswellastheeffectsofwellspacing,fractwingandskir~restrictions.Thei:westigationsoughtrelationshipsvalidonlybelow
2800k
RESERVOIRCONDITIONS:ORIGINALPRESSUREI2130Psi2400BuBBLEPOINT,2130
psi
CRUDEOILPVTCHARACTERISTICSFROMFIG.A-10~RELATIvEPERMEABILITYCHAR--2000ACTERISTICSFROMFIG.A-20wakWELLSPACING*20ACRESJWEILRAOIUSI0.33FOOTg,1600-1ICUMULATIVERECOVERV,,!,‘14+dPERCENTOFORIGINAL.\o.OILINPLACE
.—
.0PRODUCINGRATE,bo$~
Fhr.2—Contrx4ter-culculatetlinflowperformance
,
relationshipsforasolution-gasdrivereservoir.
I.0
k!
agg
0,8
&
:go,
r~
p/N=OJ%,2eh,4”l.6“le,8”h~g
.3bI
o%~z
~og~
0.4I2“AvI4“/.ZSok1---ggo.?RESERVOIRCONDITIONSSAMEASFIG.2.J.
“..
o
0.20.40,60.8
1.0
PRODUCING”RATE”fqo/~o)mox),FRACTIONOFMAXIMUM
NE.3—Dimensionlessinjlo’wperformancerelationshipsjorasolution-gasdrivereservoir.
n.s,thebubbiepoint,Computationsweremadeforreservoirsinitiallyabovethebubblepoint,butonlytoensurethatthisinitialconditiondidnotcauseasignificantchangeinbehaviorbelowthebubblepoint.
ShapeofInflowPerformanceRelationshipCurveswithNormalI’/eterioration
Asdepletionproceedsina
solutlon-gas
drivereservoir,theproductivityofatypicalwelldecreases,primarilybecausethereservoirpressureisreducedandbecauseincreasinggassaturationcausesgreaterresistancetooilflow,TheresultisaprogressivedeteriorationoftheIPRs,typifiedbytheIPRcurvesinFig.2.Exarr.inationofthesecurvesdoesnotmakeitapparentwhethertheyhaveanypropertiesincommonother:hanthattheyareallcon.cavetotheorigin.OneusefuloperationistoplotalltheIPRsasdi-mensionlessIPRs.TheprissureforeachpointonanIPRcurveisdividedbythemaximumorshut-inpres-sureforthatparticularcurve,andthecorrespondingpro-ductionrateisdividedbytt.emaximum(lOOpercentdrtw-down)producingrateforthesamecurve.Whenthisisdone,thecurvesfromFig,2canbereplottedasshowninFig.3.Itisthenreadily~ppaIentthatwiththisconstrue.tionthecurvesare,,remmkablysimilarthroughoutmostoftheproducinglifeofthereservoir
2500———F\~~A+PRFROMFIG2FCIRNpfld01%BIPRwITHPDIFFERENTCRUDEOIL2000FLOWING,ALI.OTHERCONOIIIONSBEINGTHESAltE.CRUOEOILPROP-~TIE”FROM)”lG,A-lb,1500-\B1000@500\o
l—_L_L~
50100!50200250
PRODUCINGRATE,
bopd(al
ACTUAL
IPR’S
0.20.40.60.81.0ROOUCIN5
RATEklD~%)maa),fRACTIONOFMAXIM1’M(b}DIMENSIONLESSIPR’S
300
Fig.
4-Eflectof
crude
oilpropertiesonIPR*s.
JOURNALOFPETROLEUMT13CHNO_&OCY
 
EffectofCrudeOilCharacteristicsOnIPRCurves
FromtheforegoingresultsitappearsthatIPRcurvesdifferingoverthelifeofagivenreservoiractuallypossessaco,mmonrekdtionship.Todeterminewhetherthissamerelationshipwouldbevalidforotherreservoirs,IPRcal-culationsweremadeonthecomputerfordifferentcon-ditions,Thefirstrunutilizedthesamerelativeperme-abilitiesbutacomplete]ydifferentcrudeoil.ThenewcharacteristicsincludedaviscosityabouthalfthatofthefirstandasohrtionGORabouttwiceasgreat.Fig.4acomparestheinitialIPRs(~{P/N=0.1per-cent)forthetwocases.Aswouldbeexpected,withalessviscouscrude(CurveB)thepr~ductivitywasmuchgreatecthaninthefirstcase(CurveA).However,whenplottedonadimensionlessbasis(Fig.4b)theIPRsarequitesim!lar,AslPR.sforthesecondcasedeterioratedwithdepletion,nogreaterchangeofshapeoccurredthanwasnotedintheprevioussection.Thesetwocrudeoils
1,
w
K
0.
a
m
u)
w
a
a
E
5>
awmw
a0,0
JANUARY,
hadaboutthesamebubblepoint,IPRswerethencalcu-latedforathirdcrudeoilwithahigherbubblepoirit.Again,thecharacteristicshapewasnoted,Twofurtherrunsweremadetoexploretherelationshipundermoreextremeconditions.C)neutilizedamorevis-couscrude(3-cpminimumcomparedwith1-cpminimum),andtheotherusedacrudewithalowsolutionGOR(300scf/STB).Withthemoreviscouscrude,somestraight-eningoftheIPRsW?.Snoted.Thelow-GORcrudeex-hibitedthesamecurvaturenotedinpreviouscases.Runswerea[somadewiththeinitialreservoirpres-sureexceedingthebubblepoint,Duringtheperiodwhilethereservoirpressurew-asabovethebubblepoint,theslopesoftheIPRcurveswerediscontinuouswiththeupperpartbeingastraightlineuntilthewellpressurewasreducedbelowthebubblepoint.BelowthispointtheIPRshowedcurvaturesimilartothatnotedprevious-ly.Afterthereservoirpressurewentbelowthebubblepoint,allthedimensionlessIPRcurvesagreedwellwiththepreviouscurves.
PRODUCIN9SATE
(qo/(qo)ma*),
FfSACTIONOF
MAXIMUM
Fig.
5-Irrf70wperformancerelationshipforsolution-gasdrivereservoirs.
1968m

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