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Planar Monopole CPW Fed Slot Antenna with Modified H-Shaped Slot for RFID, WiMAX and WLAN Applications

Planar Monopole CPW Fed Slot Antenna with Modified H-Shaped Slot for RFID, WiMAX and WLAN Applications

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Journal of Telecommunications, ISSN 2042-8839, Volume 15, Issue 2, August 2012 http://www.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk
Journal of Telecommunications, ISSN 2042-8839, Volume 15, Issue 2, August 2012 http://www.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk

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Published by: Journal of Telecommunications on Sep 13, 2012
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JOURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 15, ISSUE 2, AUGUST 201256
Planar Monopole CPW Fed Slot Antenna withModified H-Shaped Slot for RFID, WiMAX andWLAN Applications
Laxmi Ray, Chiranjib Goswami, Manimala Pal and Rowdra Ghatak
 
Abstract
— In this paper a planar monopole antenna with dual wideband resonance characteristics is presented that simultane-ously satisfies RFID and Wi-MAX applications. The proposed antenna structure consists of a rectangular monopole bevelled atthe base with an offset H shaped slot and occupies an area of 32
×
47 mm
2
. The measured realized gain is about 2.4dBi in thelower band (2.38 GHz -2.72 GHz) and about 3.8 dBi in the upper band (3.63 GHz – 6.15 GHz)..
Index Terms
 
Planar Monopole Antenna, RFID Antenna, Wi-MAX Antenna.
——————————
 
u
 
——————————
1 I
NTRODUCTION
 
contact less automatic identification technology, theRadio Frequency Identification (RFID) became verypopular in several applications such as electronictoll collection, asset identification, retail item manage-ment, access control, animal tracking and vehicle security[1]. The RFID system consists of read/write device and atag. The data is transferred between tag and read/writedevice using electromagnetic waves. The assign bands forRFID applications are 125 KHz, 13.56 MHz, 869 MHz,902-928 MHz, 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz [2]. To accommo-date the antenna and microchip transmitter onRFID tagthe antenna must be low profile, low cost and small sizein order to make the system compact. Furthermore the tagperformance can be degraded if a suitable antenna designis not adopted for microwave range operating frequency[3].Most of the antenna developments in RFID paradigmhave been focused on the UHF bands [4].A number of antenna designs are proposed in several literatures in-cluding
 
the aperture-coupled structure [5], the CPW-fedfolded-slot structure [6] and CPW fed shorted F-shapedmonopole antenna [7].A microstrip to coplanar striplinetransition based meander dipole with conformally cou-pled parasitic element is reported for RFID usage [8]. Me-ander PIFA structure for UHF RFID pervasive medicalapplication is presented in [9].These antennas are designfor single RFID frequency.Recently multi-band antennasystems are the most attractive candidate for supportingmultiple RFID standards simultaneously. Many of recent-ly published literature [10], [11] reported the dual bandantenna for RFID standard. The main drawback of theseantennas is very low gain. Recently some higher micro-wave bands like 2.45 GHz and 5.8GHz have been slatedfor RFID application. In this domain certain antenna likecoplanar Waveguide (CPW) fed slot antenna for 5.8 GHzis given in [12]. However, most of the development of multiband antenna for RFID is linked to one in UHF bandand the other in 2.45GHz like that reported in [13], [14].
Fig. 1.
The geometry of the proposed antenna. The slot dimensionsare shown in the right hand top corner, which largely contributes toits resonance characteristics
.
The antenna is oriented in the yzplane.
In this paper, a novel high gain dual band antenna withCPW fed structure for 2.45/5.8 GHz RFID application isproposed that merely occupies a compact size of 32
×
47mm
2
and consists of a rectangular monopole bevelled atthe base with an offset H shaped slot. The proposed an-tenna satisfies the 10 dB return loss characteristics from2.38GHz to 2.72 GHz (34 MHz) for 2.45 GHz and from
 ———————————————— 
 
 
 Microwave and Antenna Research Laboratory, Dept of ECE, NationalInstitute of Technology Durgapur, West Bengal, INDIA
 
Dept. of ECE/AEIE, Asansol Engineering College, West Bengal, INDIA
 
 
Dept. of ECE, NFET, NSHM Knowledge Campus Durgapur, INDIA
 
 
 Microwave and Antenna Research Laboratory, Dept of ECE, NationalInstitute of Technology Durgapur, West Bengal, INDIA
A
 
57
3.63 GHz to 6.15 GHz (2.52 GHz) for 5.8 GHz applica-tions, respectively. The measured antenna gain is about2.4 dBi at 2.45 GHz and 3.8 dBi at 5.8 GHz.
2 A
NTENNA
D
ESIGN AND
P
ARAMETRIC
S
TUDY
 
The antenna structure consisting of a bevelled rectan-gular monopole with a modified H shaped slot as illus-trated in Fig.1. The substrate for realizing the antenna has
 
!
r
=4.4, tan
"
=0.0022 and thickness of 0.787 mm. The an-tenna is analyzed using full wave electromagnetic simula-tion software IE3D
TM
.
Fig. 2.
Variation of S11 (dB) of the proposed antenna for parametri-cally varying
L
1
. Other parameters are
L
=12.5, W 
1
=6, W 
=3, g=2.5.(All dimensions in mm).
Fig. 3.
Variation of S11 (dB) of the proposed antenna for parametricvariation in
1
. Other parameters are
L
1
=15, L
=12.5, W 
=3, g=2.5.(All dimensions in mm).
 
The first step in the entire design process begins withrealization of a quarter wave monopole of length30.61mm, corresponding to a frequency of 2.45 GHz. Thelength (
L
) and width (
) are further optimized to 27 mmfor fine-tuning the allocated bands. To obtain the wideupper band; impedance matching is achieved by bevel-ling the bottom edges of the square patch to cover theWLAN as well as RFID bands. Etching slots on the designas illustrated in Fig.1 brings about further adjustment of  band allotment. The 50
coplanar waveguide (CPW)transmission line with finite ground plane
L
 g
 
and
 g
isused for feeding the antenna. Primary investigation of theantenna reveal that the dimensions of the slot
L
1
 , L
2
 ,
1
 ,
2
and horizontal gap
 g
 , as shown in Fig.1 play a crucialrole in resonant behaviour of the proposed antenna.Therefore these slot dimensions are put to parametricstudy. Symmetry about the vertical axis running alongcentre of the antenna is maintained. The dimension of leftand right vertical slots is identical. It can be observedfrom Fig.2 that if length of the longer slot denoted by
L
1
isincreased, simultaneously keeping the length of shorterslot L
2
fixed, the lower and upper band gets shifted tohigher frequency side in steps of 100MHz and 80 MHzrespectively. Moreover impedance matching is improvedin lower band compare to higher band.
Fig. 4.
Variation of S11 (dB) of the proposed antenna for parametricstudy of horizontal gap
. Other parameters are
L
1
=15, L
=12.5,
1
=3, W 
=3, (All dimensions in mm).
 
By keeping the dimensions of 
2
unchanged
 ,
thechange in slot width
1
 
results in 180 MHz right shift of the lower band at 2.45 GHz but upper band remains unaf-fected but impedance matching of the antenna is improveas observed from Fig.3. If the horizontal gap (g) is in-creased then lower band gets shifted to the right handside of 2.45 GHz by 70 MHz and higher band gets re-duced by 110 MHz, but impendence matching is im-proved in both bands as shown in Fig.4. On the otherhand when
2
is varied by keeping
1
 
fixed, negligiblechanges in resonance characteristics occur. The final di-mensions of the proposed antenna and the slot are tabu-lated in Table I and Table II respectively.
 
58
3 R
ESONANCE AND
R
ADIATION
C
HARACTERISTICS
A fabricated prototype of the proposed antenna, real-ised using FR4 substrate is shown in Fig.5 (a). The meas-ured S11 (dB) of the final design of the proposed antennais given in Fig.5 (b) which show that it covers the 2.45GHz (2.38 GHz -2.72 GHz) and 5.8 GHz (3.63 GHz – 6.15GHz) RFID band. The measured result and simulation arein good agreement. The slot dimensions are kept samealong either side of vertical axis passing through centre ofthe antenna to keep the current distribution symmetricalon either side for all frequencies as shown in Fig.6. Thismanifests itself as symmetrical radiation pattern.
(a)(b)
Fig. 5.
(a) Prototype of the proposed antenna (b) Comparison be-tween simulated and measured S11 (dB) of the proposed antenna.
Fig. 6.
Simulated current distribution of proposed antenna at (a) 2.45GHz and (b) 5.8 GHz.
The comparison of measured and simulated principalplane patterns at 2.45GHz and 5.8GHz are shown in Fig.7(a) and (b) respectively. It is noticed that computed radia-tion pattern remains unaltered in each band. The patternremains near omni-directional in the azimuthal plane.The measured realized gain as shown in Fig.8 (a) and (b)remain about 2dBi lower band (around 2.45 GHz) and3.8dBi in higher band (around 5.8 GHz) respectively. Themeasured impedance bandwidth in lower band is 34MHz (2.42 GHz -2.62 GHz) and in upper band is 2.52GHz (3.63GHz-6.15GHz).
4 C
ONCLUTION
 
The proposed planar monopole antenna with offset Hshaped slot covers the 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz RFID bandsas well as 5.2 GHz IEEE 802.11a WLAN band and 5.5GHz WiMAX band. By properly choosing the dimensionsof the slot dual band and tuneable impedance bandwidthcharacteristics for desire band can be achieved. Vertical
TABLE
 
1
 L
IST OF
A
NTENNA
D
ESIGN
P
ARAMETERS AND
I
TS
C
ORRESPONDING
V
ALUES
 
Parameters Value (mm)
L
 
27
 
27
S
1.3
L
 g
 
19.25
 g
 
14.7
TABLE
 
2
 L
IST OF
S
LOT
D
ESIGN
P
ARAMETERS AND
I
TS
C
OR-RESPONDING
V
ALUES
 
Parameters Value (mm)
L
1 
15
L
2 
12.5
1
 
6
2
 
3
 g
2.5

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