variation in width is needed. Theyare also the brush o choice orraised paste and enamel work.
are similar to liners, butwith atter bodies. I only the pointis used, they make lines similar toliners, but i you press down slight-ly, they will produce a wider line. Asthe name implies, they are used oritalic script.
brushes are fat on the ends,and are used to ll stencils with evenareas o color. They can also be usedto remove brush strokes laid downwith another brush, producing astippled pattern. Water-based chi-na paint blotted with a dry stencilbrush will have a ner grain patternthan that made with a wet brush.Very tiny stencil brushes can behard to nd, but you can make yourown by clipping the end o an oldround. When a stencil brush’s end iscut at an angle, it is reerred to as a
. Some brush sup-pliers make a variation on the sten-cil brush shape, with shorter, soterbristles, called a
brush has a thickbody, and a short, sharp point. Afat-erruled version o this shapeis oten called a
andis specically designed or paintingmany tiny shapes, such as the indi-vidual seeds o blackberries.
may be round or fat, but o-ten have no errule. They hold large quantities o liquidand dispense it a little at a time. Mops are also used dryto pick up powdered color when laying a dry ground.Most o the above brush shapes are made with eithermetal or quill errules. Many china painters preer quillbrushes to metal errules because they are more fexibleand “spring” better. Quill brushes also dier rom er-ruled brushes in that they are not perectly round, andmust be held with the fat side down, or the point willsplit or “quack” into a shape resembling a duck’s openbill. Many quill brushes are sold without a handle, re-quiring the artist to move points rom one handle toanother, which oten splits the quill. They should besoaked in warm water to soten them and pushed gen-tly onto the handle. I they do split, you may slip ashort piece o heat-shrink tubing over the quill and heatit gently with a match.The common fat-erruled shapes are brights, fats(also known as shaders), lberts and tches.
are the most versatile fat-erruled brushes.They are slightly longer than they are wide.
aresimilar, but their length and widthare the same. Both are used to ll inbroad areas and washes o color, andboth are made with either square orangled tips. Flats and brights makea broad, straight-sided, square-end-ed mark when they’re moved up ordown, and a thin mark when movedsideways. Moving them in a circularmotion produces a C-shaped mark.
have a rounded proleand make an oval mark.
taper to a chisel point and make ateardrop shape, useul or drawingoliage. Fitches and lberts are typi-cally not moved sideways, but onlyup and down, although the straightside o a tch can be used like thesquare end o a fat.
also have a fat errule, butthe bristles are splayed into a widerounded end. They are useul ormaking streaky marks, and are o-ten used dry to blend areas o di-erent colors while the paint is stillwet. Clipping some o the bristlescan result in very interesting marks.
are the most ver-satile shapes. A selection o theseand a good liner or rigger will cov-er most painting situations. Manychina painters use no more thana small round, a liner, and a largeand small shader, either square orangled. In traditional china paint-ing the “American style,” eaturingsot naturalistic eects, is usually painted using squareshaders, while the more rigid and brighter “Dresdenstyle” employs more rounds and liners.
Whirleys (or spooleys)
brushes are unlikethe above shapes, and are made up o sti bristles pro-truding rom a central shat. A whirley’s bristles arevery sti and short, and are designed to be draggedthrough a wet stroke to simulate hair. Spatter brusheshave longer bristles, as well as a piece o wire or woodalong one side. When the brush is rotated against thewire, droplets o paint are fung onto the work.
The best watercolor brushes are Kolinsky sable, re-nowned or strength, springiness and ne point. Nextbest are red sable, not as springy as Kolinsky, but abouthal the price. Sabeline is a ne ox hair dyed to resem-ble sable, and is cheaper but not as good. The cheap-est watercolor brushes are squirrel, sheep, or goat hair.Squirrel hair is very ne and limp.
Brush shapes with at errules. Top tobottom: at, bright, flbert, ftch, an,angled and mop.