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Casting Process

Casting Process

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Published by Thulasi Doss
Notes for casting process
Notes for casting process

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Published by: Thulasi Doss on Sep 15, 2012
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Casting
Introduction
Casting is one of the easiest classes of process to understand. Casting is simply a process where amould is filled with a fluid, which then solidifies in the shape of the mould cavity. Provided the liquidis capable of undergoing a liquid-to-solid transition, by freezing or chemical reaction for instance, thencasting can be used.Making ice cubes and jellies are useful analogies here. The production of the mould is one of the mostimportant stages in making a casting. The casting, when solidified, must be of the right shape for thefinal product. In making the mould, often a ‘pattern’ made in the shape of the final component is used.This might be a wooden mock-up, for example.Complex 3D shapes can be made using casting processes. Casting can be used to make a vast array of  products, from gas-turbine blades to cheap plastic toys. Cast parts can range in size from fractions of centimetres and grams (such as the individual teeth on a zipper), to over 10 metres in length and manytonnes (such as the propellers of ocean liners).Using one of the available casting processes almost anything can be manufactured. It is a matter of optimising materials to be cast, the mould material and the pouring method (see Properties for  processing – casting).Generally, during casting, the fluid flows into the mould under gravity, but sometimes the fluid mayneed some extra force to push it into the cavity.
Casting is not restricted to metals (or jellies).
Glass and plastics can also be cast using a variety of processes, each being dependent on the rawstarting material, and the manner by which it can be made to flow when it is in its liquid state. Casting processes can be classified into three types depending on the nature of the mould used.
Properties for processing – casting
The casting (or pouring) group of processes is one of the most convenient for making three-dimensional shapes, especially if repeated copies are required. However, you do have to be able to getyour material into liquid form, and it has then to be ‘runny’ enough to be poured.
What do these conditions require?
To get a liquid, you have to either melt the material; or dissolve it in a solvent which is subsequentlyevaporated off (the ‘solution route’); or pour liquid precursors into a mould where they reactchemically to form a solid (the ‘reaction route’).Some materials (e.g. thermosetting plastics) decompose rather than melt on heating. Others react withoxygen when heated, so need to be melted in inert atmospheres (which may prove expensive). Yetothers have such high melting points (see the database) that the energy costs of heating them is only justified in special cases.The solution route needs a suitable solvent, which you then have to be able to evaporate safely (manycoatings such as paints are applied this way), but you can have shrinkage problems as the solvent isremoved. The reaction route is used for both thermosets and thermoplastics and for concrete, but
 
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chemical reactions can produce considerable quantities of heat, so you must allow for this in the designof the process.Once you have the liquid, can you pour it?The physical property that determines the ‘runniness’ of liquid is called viscosity. This varies withtemperature and is not all that useful for describing how well a mould will be filled if the temperatureof the liquid is falling as it runs into the cold mould. In the casting of metals a more useful property isfluidity, which takes into account not only the viscosity changes but also the effects of cooling rate,surface tension of oxide films and the temperature range over which the alloy filling the mould actuallyfreezes. Eutectic alloys have a high fluidity as they melt at a single temperature. Many of the alloysused for casting products are based on eutectic alloys.Water and most liquids at room temperature have low viscosities, so can be poured easily, as canthermoset precursors. Molten thermoplastics, freshly-mixed concrete and clays have much higher viscosities. Although concrete can be poured, the others generally need to be pushed into their moulds,which is why injection-moulding machines for plastics are much ‘beefier’ than their pressure die-casting machine counterparts for metals.
Types of casting
Permanent pattern
This type of casting uses a model, or pattern, of the final product to make an impression which formsthe mould cavity. Each mould is destroyed after use but the same pattern is used over and over again.Sand casting is a typical example of a permanent pattern process, where a pattern is placed into aspecial casting sand to form the right shape of cavity. Permanent pattern processes are usually cheaper than other methods, especially for small quantity production or ‘one-offs’, and are suitable for a widerange of sizes of product.
Permanent mould
In this method the same mould is used for large numbers of castings. Each casting is released byopening the mould rather than by destroying it. Permanent moulds need to be made of a material whichcan withstand the temperature fluctuations and wear associated with repeated casting. A good exampleof a product made with methods such of this is the ubiquitous ‘die-cast’ child’s toy (‘die’ is another word for ‘mould’).
 
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Casting
Casting is a manufacturing process by which a molten material such as metal or plastic is introducedinto a mold, allowed to solidify within the mold, and then ejected or broken out to make a fabricated part. Casting is used for making parts of complex shape that would be difficult or uneconomical tomake by other methods, such as cutting from solid material.Casting may be used to form hot, liquid metals or meltable plastics (called thermoplastics), or variousmaterials that cold set after mixing of components such as certain plastic resins such as epoxy, water setting materials such as concrete or plaster, and materials that become liquid or paste when moist suchas clay, which when dry enough to be rigid is removed from the mold, further dried, and fired in a kiln.Substitution is always a factor in deciding whether other techniques should be used instead of casting.Alternatives include parts that can be stamped out on a punch press or deep-drawn, forged, items thatcan be manufactured by extrusion or by cold-bending, and parts that can be made from highly activemetals.The casting process is subdivided into two distinct subgroups: expendable and nonexpendable moldcasting:
Expendable mold casting :
Expendable mold casting is a generic classification that includes sand, plastic, shell, and investment(lost-wax technique) moldings. This method of mold casting involves the use of temporary,nonreusable molds.
Sand casting :
Sand casting requires a lead time of days for production at high output rates (1-20 pieces/hr-mold), andis unsurpassed for large-part production. Green (moist) sand has almost no part weight limit, whereasdry sand has a practical part mass limit of 2300-2700 kg. Minimum part weight ranges from 0.075-0.1kg. The sand is bonded together using clays (as in green sand) or chemical binders, or polymerizedoils. Sand in most operations can be recycled many times and requires little additional input.Preparation of the sand mold is fast and requires a pattern which can "stamp" out the casting template.Typically, sand casting is used for processing low-temperature metals, such as iron, copper, aluminium,magnesium, and nickel alloys. Sand casting can also be used for high temp metals where other meanswould be unpractical. It is by far the oldest and best understood of all techniques. Consequently,automation may easily be adapted to the production process, somewhat less easily to the design and preparation of forms. These forms must satisfy exacting standards as they are the heart of the sandcasting process - creating the most obvious necessity for human control.
Plaster casting (of metals) :
Plaster casting is similar to sand molding except that plaster is substituted for sand. Plaster compoundis actually composed of 70-80% gypsum and 20-30% strengthener and water. Generally, the form takesless than a week to prepare, after which a production rate of 1-10 units/hr-mold is achieved with itemsas massive as 45 kg and as small as 30 g with very high surface resolution and fine tolerances.

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