The acronym MPEG stands for Moving Picture Expert Group, whichworked to generate the specifications under ISO, the InternationalOrganization for Standardization and IEC, the InternationalElectrotechnical Commission. What is commonly referred to as"MPEG video" actually consists at the present time of two finalizedstandards, MPEG-1 and MPEG-2, with a third standard, MPEG-4, inthe process of being finalized . The MPEG-1 & -2 standards are similar in basic concepts. They both are based on motion compensated block- based transform coding techniques, while MPEG-4 deviates from thesemore traditional approaches in its usage of software image constructdescriptors, for target bit-rates in the very low range, < 64Kb/sec.Because MPEG-1 & -2 are finalized standards and are both presently being utilized in a large number of applications, this case studyconcentrates on compression techniques relating only to these twostandards. MPEG 3- it was originally anticipated that this standardwould refer to HDTV applications, but it was found that minor extensions to the MPEG-2 standard would suffice for this higher bit-rate, higher resolution application, so work on a separate MPEG-3standard was abandoned.